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 Country: United States
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past

The 2007-2009 Recession: Similarities to and Differences from the Past

Date: October 6, 2010
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: According to the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), the U.S. economy was in a recession for 18 months from December 2007 to June 2009. It was the longest and deepest recession of the post-World War II era. This report provides information on the patterns found across past recessions since World War II to gauge whether and how this recession might be different.
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Ability to Repay, Risk-Retention Standards, and Mortgage Credit Access

Ability to Repay, Risk-Retention Standards, and Mortgage Credit Access

Date: June 5, 2012
Creator: Getter, Darryl E.
Description: This report examines the developments associated with the implementation of mortgage lending reforms. The report begins with a summary of proposed ability to repay and risk-retention standards. Next, the report describes risky underwriting and financing practices that occurred prior to the mortgage crisis, followed by a discussion of how access to mortgage credit might be affected.
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Affiliates in Banking, Finance, and Commerce: Development and Regulatory Background

Affiliates in Banking, Finance, and Commerce: Development and Regulatory Background

Date: April 27, 2005
Creator: Jackson, William D.
Description: The proliferation of corporate affiliates in banking, finance, and commerce has figured in discussion of several policy issues, including how to protect against (1) losses incurred by affiliated companies; (2) anticompetitive “tying” of bank and nonbank financial services; and (3) misuse of financial data of consumers. This report outlines the nature and evolution of affiliates, primarily from a regulatory perspective. It provides background for discussing financial issues involving corporate affiliates.
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Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues

Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues

Date: March 8, 2007
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: The federal government has a long history of providing credit assistance to farmers by issuing direct loans and guarantees, and creating rural lending institutions. These institutions include the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which makes or guarantees loans to farmers who cannot qualify at other lenders, and the Farm Credit System (FCS), which is a network of borrower-owned lending institutions operating as a government-sponsored enterprise. This report discusses legislation regarding this credit assistance expected in the the 110th Congress. Appropriators will consider funding for FSA’s farm loan programs, and the agriculture committees may consider changes to FSA and FCS lending programs. The 2007 farm bill is expected to be the venue for many of the authorizing issues, although stand-alone legislation may be used for extensive reforms.
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Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Date: April 28, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Chite, Ralph M.
Description: This report has two sections. The first provides an overview of the current USDA disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, emergency disaster loans, the new Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs authorized in the 2008 farm bill. The second section reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance.
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Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Agricultural Disaster Assistance

Date: October 25, 2010
Creator: Shields, Dennis A. & Chite, Ralph M.
Description: This report has two sections. The first provides an overview of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) disaster assistance programs: federal crop insurance, NAP payments, emergency disaster loans, the new Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments Program (SURE), and four other smaller disaster programs authorized in the 2008 farm bill. The second section reviews the recent history of emergency supplemental farm disaster assistance.
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Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Date: May 29, 2009
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. It contains a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
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Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Airport Improvement Program (AIP): Reauthorization Issues for Congress

Date: January 27, 2010
Creator: Kirk, Robert S.
Description: This report discusses the Airport Improvement Program and its complement, the passenger facility charge (PFC), within the broader context of airport capital development finance. After a brief history of federal support for airport construction and improvement, the report describes AIP funding, its source of revenues, funding distribution, and the types of projects the program funds.
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The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Date: July 10, 2014
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Description: This report provides both an in-depth description of the American Opportunity Tax Credit, an analysis of its economic impact, and an overview of various policy options.
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The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Date: July 10, 2014
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Description: This report provides both an in-depth description of this tax credit and an analysis of its economic impact. This report is organized to first provide an overview of the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC), followed by a legislative history that highlights the evolution of education tax credits from proposals in the 1960s through the recent extension of the AOTC at the end of 2012. This report then analyzes the credit by looking at who claims the credit, the effect education tax credits have on increasing college attendance, and administrative issues with the AOTC. Finally, this report concludes with a brief overview of various policy options, including tax law changes proposed in Chairman Camp's tax reform bill3 and in the President's FY2015 budget request.
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The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

The American Opportunity Tax Credit: Overview, Analysis, and Policy Options

Date: June 11, 2012
Creator: Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Description: This report gives an overview of the American Opportunity Tax Credit (AOTC)—enacted on a temporary basis by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and extended through the end of 2012 by the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010— which is a partially-refundable tax credit that provides financial assistance to taxpayers who are attending college, or whose children are attending college. There are a variety of policy options mentioned in the report regarding the AOTC, including extending the credit, extending a modified AOTC, or repealing the Hope and Lifetime Credits and extending a modified AOTC that includes provisions included in these credits.
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An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of the Mortgage Interest Deduction

An Analysis of the Geographic Distribution of the Mortgage Interest Deduction

Date: January 30, 2014
Creator: Keightley, Mark P.
Description: This report analyzes variation in the mortgage interest deduction tax expenditure across states. Tax expenditures, such as the mortgage interest deduction, can generally be viewed as government spending administered via the tax code, or as tax incentives that are intended to achieve particular policy objectives. Regardless of the interpretation, tax expenditures provide a benefit to qualifying taxpayers by lowering their federal tax liabilities.
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An Analysis of the Regulatory Burden on Small Banks

An Analysis of the Regulatory Burden on Small Banks

Date: April 22, 2015
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report explains the concept of regulatory burden and the different ways it can be manifested. It analyzes whether small banks are relatively more burdened by regulation than big banks. To help answer that question, the report looks at the relative treatment of small and large banks in recent major regulatory proposals.
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Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues

Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues

Date: September 19, 2013
Creator: Stern, Charles V. & Carter, Nicole T.
Description: This report provides analysis of Corps supplemental funding. Its focus is recent decades of supplemental funding provided directly to the Corps, and it does not include extensive analysis of regular Corps appropriations.
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Auction Basics: Background for Assessing Proposed Treasury Purchases of Mortgage- Backed Securities

Auction Basics: Background for Assessing Proposed Treasury Purchases of Mortgage- Backed Securities

Date: October 14, 2008
Creator: Austin, D. Andrew
Description: This report discusses the administrations' proposal to use reverse Dutch auctions to purchase troubled assets -- primarily mortgage-related securities from financial institutions.
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A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

A Balanced Budget Constitutional Amendment: Background and Congressional Options

Date: August 3, 2011
Creator: Saturno, James V. & Lynch, Megan Suzanne
Description: This report provides an overview of the issues and options that have been raised during prior consideration of proposals for an amendment to the constitution regarding the balancing of the U.S. government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session

Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session

Date: August 10, 1998
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Wells, F. J.
Description: This report reviews major banking and finance issues that are receiving congressional attention in the 2nd session of the 105th Congress. It will be updated periodically to reflect legislative developments. Relevant CRS products are referenced.
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Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session

Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session

Date: August 10, 1998
Creator: Shorter, Gary & Wells, F. J.
Description: This report reviews major banking and finance issues that are receiving congressional attention in the 2nd session of the 105th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Banking and Financial Infrastructure Continuity: Pandemic Flu, Terrorism, and Other Challenges

Banking and Financial Infrastructure Continuity: Pandemic Flu, Terrorism, and Other Challenges

Date: May 4, 2009
Creator: Weiss, N. E.
Description: This report outlines the financial sector's recovery plans for two kinds of disasters: the inability to conduct transactions and large losses of asset value. The basic function of the payment system is carried out by banks, and monetary policy affects banks immediately. Because brokers, exchanges, secondary market facilities, and insurance companies carry out crucial financial functions, their regulators and trade associations are involved in continuity of operations planning for contingencies.
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The Berne Union: An Overview

The Berne Union: An Overview

Date: April 5, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides background information about the Berne Union, or the International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers. It is an international organization comprised of more than 70 public and private sector members that represent both public and private segments of the export credit and investment insurance industry.
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Budgetary Treatment of Federal Credit (Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees): Concepts, History, and Issues for Congress

Budgetary Treatment of Federal Credit (Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees): Concepts, History, and Issues for Congress

Date: June 24, 2014
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Description: The purpose of this report is to explain the provisions of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 or FCRA; examine the implementation of credit reform, including credit reform provisions of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105- 33, §1011; 111 Stat. 254,692); discuss proposed modifications of credit reform; and describe proposed legislation in the 113th Congress.
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Campaign Finance

Campaign Finance

Date: April 20, 2005
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Description: This report discusses campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today's paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition.
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Campaign Finance Bills in the 107th Congress: Comparison of S. 27 (McCain-Feingold), H.R. 2356 (Shays-Meehan), H.R. 2360 (Ney-Wynn), and Current Law

Campaign Finance Bills in the 107th Congress: Comparison of S. 27 (McCain-Feingold), H.R. 2356 (Shays-Meehan), H.R. 2360 (Ney-Wynn), and Current Law

Date: July 5, 2001
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E. & Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: This report summarizes and compares three major campaign finance reform bills before the 107th Congress and current law (in most cases, the Federal Election Campaign Act, or FECA, 2 U.S.C. § 431 et seq.).
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Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Campaign Finance: Issues Before the U.S. Supreme Court in McConnell v. FEC

Date: June 20, 2003
Creator: Whitaker, L. P.
Description: This report provides a summary of the issues presented by 12 groups of appellants in their jurisdictional statements in 2003. Shortly after the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA), P.L. 107-155 (H.R. 2356, 107th Cong.) was enacted in March 2002 (also known as the McCain-Feingold campaign finance reform legislation), Senator Mitch McConnell and others filed suit in U.S. District Court for D.C. against the Federal Election Commission (FEC) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) arguing that provisions of the law are unconstitutional. Ultimately, eleven suits challenging BCRA were brought by more than 80 plaintiffs and consolidated into one lead case, McConnell v. FEC. On May 2, 2003, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia issued its decision in McConnell v. FEC, No. 02-CV-0582 striking down some key provisions of the law as unconstitutional, but on May 19, it issued a stay of its ruling, which leaves BCRA, as enacted, in effect until the Supreme Court issues a decision. (For information about the decision, see CRS Report RS21511, Campaign Finance: Brief Overview of McConnell v. FEC.) Under the BCRA expedited review provision, the court's decision will be reviewed directly by the U.S. Supreme Court, which scheduled oral argument ...
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