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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

The Enron Collapse: An Overview of Financial Issues

Date: March 19, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report briefly examines the accounting system that failed to provide a clear picture of the firm’s true condition, the independent auditors and board members who were unwilling to challenge Enron’s management, the Wall Street stock analysts and bond raters who missed the trouble ahead, the rules governing employer stock in company pension plans, and the unregulated energy derivatives trading that was the core of Enron’s business. The report also describes related legislation that has received floor or committee action and will be updated regularly.
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Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups

Optional Federal Chartering for Insurers: Major Interest Groups

Date: March 18, 2002
Creator: Woodall, S. Roy, Jr
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: March 15, 2002
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as “express advocacy” or “magic words” can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Unlike express advocacy communications, therefore, issue ads may be paid for with funds unregulated by federal law, i.e., soft money
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The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: March 12, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Enron Bankruptcy and Employer Stock in Retirement Plans

The Enron Bankruptcy and Employer Stock in Retirement Plans

Date: March 11, 2002
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J
Description: This report describes the current laws governing the holding of employer stock in employee retirement plans and summarizes some key policy questions that pension analysts have raised about holding such stock in defined contribution retirement plans.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Taxation of Overseas Investment

U.S. Taxation of Overseas Investment

Date: March 8, 2002
Creator: Brumbaugh, David L
Description: None
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VA-Home Loan Guaranty Program: An Overview

VA-Home Loan Guaranty Program: An Overview

Date: February 21, 2002
Creator: Foote, Bruce E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Financing

Campaign Financing

Date: February 14, 2002
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition.
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Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1990-2002

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1990-2002

Date: February 14, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Consumer Bankruptcy and Household Debt

Consumer Bankruptcy and Household Debt

Date: February 8, 2002
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: Financial distress is most common among lower-income families, but its incidence has grown in all income brackets. This trend suggests that explanations for the rise in consumer bankruptcy filings are more likely to be found in micro-analysis of individuals and groups of debtors than in macroeconomic indicators. This report presents statistics on bankruptcy filings, household debt, and households in financial distress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department