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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China and the Multilateral Development Banks

China and the Multilateral Development Banks

Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: Congress is currently considering appropriations for U.S. contributions to the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) as well as separate legislation that would require U.S. representatives to these institutions to oppose all concessional loans to China. This report provides a brief analysis of China’s relationship with the MDBs to highlight some issues and help Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers better understand the context for the current debates in Congress and the multilateral agencies.
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FY1998 USDA Budget and Appropriations: Domestic Food Programs

FY1998 USDA Budget and Appropriations: Domestic Food Programs

Date: November 18, 1997
Creator: Jones, Jean Yavis
Description: None
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Private Mortgage Insurance: Cancellation Options

Private Mortgage Insurance: Cancellation Options

Date: December 17, 1997
Creator: Foote, Bruce E
Description: None
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The International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Proposed Quota Increase: Issues for Congress

The International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Proposed Quota Increase: Issues for Congress

Date: January 16, 1998
Creator: Wertman, Patricia A
Description: None
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Africa: Trade and Development Initiatives by the Clinton Administration and Congress

Africa: Trade and Development Initiatives by the Clinton Administration and Congress

Date: March 2, 1998
Creator: Dagne, Theodore S.
Description: In February 1997, the Clinton Administration submitted the second of five annual reports on the Administration's Comprehensive Trade and Development Policy for Africa as required by section 134 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (House Document 103-3415, Vol. 1.). On April 24, 1997, members of the African Trade and Investment Caucus introduced a bill, H.R. 1432, on U.S.-Africa trade and investment issues. In his State of the Union address in January 1998, President Clinton called on Congress to pass the trade legislation.
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Consumer Bankruptcy Reform: Proposals Before the 105th Congress

Consumer Bankruptcy Reform: Proposals Before the 105th Congress

Date: March 20, 1998
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report examines current consumer bankruptcy practice and the proposals set forth in the reform bills. Also considered are the legislative history of the current consumer bankruptcy scheme, and topics likely to be debated as Congress proceeds to consider consumer bankruptcy reform.
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Campaign Finance Reform Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 3581 (Thomas), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law

Campaign Finance Reform Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 3581 (Thomas), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law

Date: April 13, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: On March 30, 1998, the House considered four campaign reform bills under a suspension of rules, focusing on the comprehensive H.R. 3581, offered that day for the Republican leadership by Mr. Thomas; it failed passage on a 74-337 vote. (The bill was similar to H.R. 3485, also by Mr. Thomas, reported by the House Oversight Committee March 18.1) The bill generating the most publicity in the 105th Congress has been S. 25 (McCain-Feingold),2 introduced on March 19 as H.R. 3526 by Messrs. Shays and Meehan. This report summarizes and compares H.R. 3581, H.R. 3526, and current law.
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Asian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy Interests and Options

Asian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of U.S. Foreign Policy Interests and Options

Date: April 23, 1998
Creator: Cronin, Richard P
Description: The principal focus of this report is on the foreign policy ramifications of the Asian financial crisis and U.S. options for addressing them. This report tracks and analyzes the efforts of the most seriously affected Asian countries to deal with their economic and financial problems, and their interaction with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the United States, and other major sources of financial support and policy advice. It also addresses the implications of the crisis for such U.S. interests as regional stability and the prevention of conflict, trade liberalization, and U.S. regional and global leadership, and discusses the principal factors that could influence the duration and severity of the crisis. A final section considers options for Congress in the context of various criticisms of the IMF’s stabilization programs and the operations of the Fund itself.
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Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program

Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses Medicare, which consists of two distinct parts — Part A (Hospital Insurance (HI)) and Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI)). Part A is financed primarily through payroll taxes levied on current workers and their employers. Income from these taxes is credited to the HI trust fund. Part B is financed through a combination of monthly premiums paid by current enrollees and general revenues. Income from these sources is credited to the SMI trust fund.
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Multiple-Group Federal Credit Unions: An Update

Multiple-Group Federal Credit Unions: An Update

Date: May 6, 1998
Creator: Smale, Pauline
Description: None
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The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare

The Financial Outlook for Social Security and Medicare

Date: May 7, 1998
Creator: Koitz, David Stuart & Kollmann, Geoffrey
Description: None
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Social Security: The Relationship of Taxes and Benefits for Past, Present, and Future Retirees

Social Security: The Relationship of Taxes and Benefits for Past, Present, and Future Retirees

Date: May 12, 1998
Creator: Kollmann, Geoffrey
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
One Million Personal Bankruptcies a Year: Economic Implications and Policy Options

One Million Personal Bankruptcies a Year: Economic Implications and Policy Options

Date: May 14, 1998
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: May 15, 1998
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated.
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Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures

Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures

Date: May 19, 1998
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: This report discusses in general terms the basic process and time line for banking industry acquisitions and mergers and briefly discusses the May 4, 1998 application by Travelers Group to merge with Citicorp. Among the issues discussed are: potential impact on consumers; whether the new entities would be too big to fail; and, whether competitive equity calls for financial modernization legislation with functional regulation of the securities, banking, and insurance sectors of companies offering customers a full range of financial products and services. Legislative developments on financial modernization issues in the 105th Congress are reported in CRS Issue Brief 97034, which is available on the Legislative Information System.
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Uniform Standards in Private Securities Litigation: Limitations on Shareholder Lawsuits

Uniform Standards in Private Securities Litigation: Limitations on Shareholder Lawsuits

Date: May 20, 1998
Creator: Seitzinger, Michael V
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Current Social Security Issues

Current Social Security Issues

Date: May 21, 1998
Creator: Koitz, David & Kollmann, Geoffrey
Description: Social Security is the focus of intense public interest. Projected long-range funding problems, public skepticism about its future, and a growing perception that Social Security will not be as good a value for future retirees as it is today are fueling calls for reform. This report discusses a number of the major Social Security issues currently drawing congressional attention.
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Consumer Proposals in the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1998: H.R. 3150, 105th Congress, 2d Session (1998)

Consumer Proposals in the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1998: H.R. 3150, 105th Congress, 2d Session (1998)

Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report considers the legislative history of the current consumer bankruptcy scheme. It examines current consumer bankruptcy practice and surveys the consumer proposals set forth in Title I of H.R. 3150, with an emphasis on the likely impact of the bill on family support obligations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Debate in the House: Substitute Amendments to H.R. 2183 (105th Congress)

Campaign Finance Debate in the House: Substitute Amendments to H.R. 2183 (105th Congress)

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: This report provides a summary and comparison of the 11 substitute amendments to H.R. 2183, a campaign finance reform bill offered by Representatives Hutchinson and Allen, that, under H. Res. 442, will be in order for consideration by the House. The House began consideration of the bill and these substitute amendments (as well as additional perfecting amendments) on May 21, 1998. This report is intended for use by House Members and staff in preparation for and during House debate and assumes basic familiarity with the underlying issues. It may be updated to reflect further legislative actions.
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Highway Funding, the States, and New Air Quality Standards

Highway Funding, the States, and New Air Quality Standards

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Restructuring Electricity Markets, Public Power, and Tax-Exempt Bonds: An Economic Analysis

Restructuring Electricity Markets, Public Power, and Tax-Exempt Bonds: An Economic Analysis

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Zimmerman, Dennis
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?

Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?

Date: June 15, 1998
Creator: Elwell, Craig K
Description: A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery?
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Securities Litigation Reform: Unfinished Business?

Securities Litigation Reform: Unfinished Business?

Date: July 14, 1998
Creator: Shorter, Gary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 2183 (Hutchison -Allen), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law

Campaign Finance Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 2183 (Hutchison -Allen), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law

Date: July 22, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: As pledged by Speaker Gingrich, the House renewed consideration of campaign finance reform in May 1998. The principal bill is H.R. 2183, known as the freshman bipartisan bill, introduced July 17, 1997, by Messrs. Hutchinson and Allen. Selected floor amendments and substitutes will be in order. The legislation that has generated the most publicity in the 105th Congress has been the McCain-Feingold bill (S. 25), offered on March 19, 1998, as H.R. 3526 by Messrs. Shays and Meehan;1 this has also been offered as substitute amendment no. 13 to H.R. 2183 in the current debate. Table 1 highlights key differences between the two bills, and Table 2 summarizes and compares H.R. 2183, H.R. 3526, and current law.
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