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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
World Bank Lending to China

World Bank Lending to China

Date: April 25, 1996
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: Lending to China from the multilateral development banks (MDBs) increased four-fold between 1985 and 1994, from $1.1 billion to $4.3 billion. China is now the MDBs' largest single borrower country. There is considerable debate today, however, whether the MDBs should continue lending to China. In particular, there is sharp debate whether the World Bank should continue making concessional loans to China.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress

Date: August 5, 2003
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E & Weiss, Martin A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 108th Congress

Date: June 12, 2003
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E & Weiss, Martin A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: May 8, 2008
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) approach the issue of "currency manipulation" differently. The IMF Articles of Agreement prohibit countries from manipulating their currency for the purpose of gaining unfair trade advantage, but the IMF cannot force a country to change its exchange rate policies. The WTO has rules against subsidies, but these are very narrow and specific and do not seem to encompass currency manipulation. Several options might be considered for addressing this matter in the future, if policymakers deem this a wise course of action.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: July 21, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report analyzes how the United States makes policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) and identifies ways by which Congress can shape U.S. policy and influence the activities of the banks themselves.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Multilateral Development Banks: How the United States Makes and Implements Policy

Date: December 17, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report discusses how U.S. policy towards the multilateral development banks (MDBs) is developed and implemented in the executive branch and the agencies that are involved. It also analyzes the three main sources of congressional influence--legislative authority, the power of the purse, and oversight activities-- on U.S. policy towards the development banks. Finally, it examines the levels of funding Congress has approved for MDBs, budgetary issues and the policy directives that Congress has initiated over the years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-2009

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY1998-2009

Date: August 8, 2008
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration requested and how much Congress appropriated during the past 11 years for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs). It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations. It will be updated periodically. Three companion reports provide further information on the MDBs. See CRS Report RS20793, Multilateral Development Banks: Basic Background, CRS Report RS20791, Multilateral Development Banks: Procedures for U.S. Participation, and CRS Report RS22134 International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department