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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and Older, 1969 to 2004

Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and Older, 1969 to 2004

Date: April 20, 2006
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J & Whitman, Debra B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and Older, 1969 to 2004

Topics in Aging: Income of Americans Age 65 and Older, 1969 to 2004

Date: April 20, 2006
Creator: Purcell, Patrick J & Whitman, Debra B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Exchange-Rate System: Return to Bretton Woods?

The Exchange-Rate System: Return to Bretton Woods?

Date: January 12, 1995
Creator: Reifman, Alfred
Description: This report focuses on the exchange-rate system set up at Bretton Woods, its breakdown in the 1970s, the current system of managed floating and, finally, proposals to return part or all the way to a more fixed-rate system.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Reappraisal of Foreign Investment Policy

A Reappraisal of Foreign Investment Policy

Date: February 8, 1994
Creator: Reifman, Alfred
Description: The rise of the multinational corporation and the increased flow of capital across national borders have raised anew the question of how to treat foreign direct investment, both inward and outward. The U.S. government and, increasingly, other governments advocate that, with some exceptions, economic policies should be neutral in the treatment of investment, foreign and domestic, inward and outward. This report discusses the changing view of foreign investment, both nationally and internationally.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security Reform: Growing Real Ownerships for Workers (GROW) Act of 2005, H.R. 3304

Social Security Reform: Growing Real Ownerships for Workers (GROW) Act of 2005, H.R. 3304

Date: September 22, 2005
Creator: Romig, Kathleen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China and the Multilateral Development Banks

China and the Multilateral Development Banks

Date: October 31, 1997
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: Congress is currently considering appropriations for U.S. contributions to the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) as well as separate legislation that would require U.S. representatives to these institutions to oppose all concessional loans to China. This report provides a brief analysis of China’s relationship with the MDBs to highlight some issues and help Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers better understand the context for the current debates in Congress and the multilateral agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and other countries have expressed considerable concern that China’s national currency (the yuan or renminbi) is seriously undervalued. Some analysts say the yuan needs to rise by as much as 40% in order to reflect its equilibrium value. Critics say that China’s undervalued currency provides it with an unfair trade advantage that has seriously injured the manufacturing sector in the United States. Chinese officials counter that they have not pegged the yuan to the dollar in order to gain trade advantages. Rather, they say the fixed rate promotes economic stability that is vital for the functioning of its domestic economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: Many are concerned that China’s currency is undervalued and that this injures the U.S. economy. The Chinese authorities say they are not manipulating their currency and they want to move as soon as possible to a market-based yuan. A new exchange rate procedure was announced in July 2005 but has not resulted in meaningful changes in the yuan’s international value. This report reviews the issues and discusses alternative approaches the United States might take to encourage more rapid reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China’s Currency: U.S. Options

China’s Currency: U.S. Options

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and China have disagreed whether China’s national currency, the yuan or renminbi, is properly valued compared to the U.S. dollar and whether China is manipulating its currency.1 The United States has pushed China to raise the value of its currency. Chinese officials say they want to make their exchange rate system more flexible, but China also needs long-term stability in its currency value in order to avoid dislocations. Chinese officials also say they will not bow to foreign pressure. China announced a new exchange rate procedure on July 21, 2005. This report summarizes this controversy, it describes actions and positions taken by the United States, China and other countries, and it discusses various approaches the United States might use to address this concern.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Financial Institutions:  Funding U.S. Participation

International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department