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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

China, the United States and the IMF: Negotiating Exchange Rate Adjustment

Date: March 13, 2006
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and other countries have expressed considerable concern that China’s national currency (the yuan or renminbi) is seriously undervalued. Some analysts say the yuan needs to rise by as much as 40% in order to reflect its equilibrium value. Critics say that China’s undervalued currency provides it with an unfair trade advantage that has seriously injured the manufacturing sector in the United States. Chinese officials counter that they have not pegged the yuan to the dollar in order to gain trade advantages. Rather, they say the fixed rate promotes economic stability that is vital for the functioning of its domestic economy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: Many are concerned that China’s currency is undervalued and that this injures the U.S. economy. The Chinese authorities say they are not manipulating their currency and they want to move as soon as possible to a market-based yuan. A new exchange rate procedure was announced in July 2005 but has not resulted in meaningful changes in the yuan’s international value. This report reviews the issues and discusses alternative approaches the United States might take to encourage more rapid reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China’s Currency: U.S. Options

China’s Currency: U.S. Options

Date: July 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: In recent years, the United States and China have disagreed whether China’s national currency, the yuan or renminbi, is properly valued compared to the U.S. dollar and whether China is manipulating its currency.1 The United States has pushed China to raise the value of its currency. Chinese officials say they want to make their exchange rate system more flexible, but China also needs long-term stability in its currency value in order to avoid dislocations. Chinese officials also say they will not bow to foreign pressure. China announced a new exchange rate procedure on July 21, 2005. This report summarizes this controversy, it describes actions and positions taken by the United States, China and other countries, and it discusses various approaches the United States might use to address this concern.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Financial Institutions:  Funding U.S. Participation

International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Basic Background

Multilateral Development Banks: Basic Background

Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Current Authorization Requests

Multilateral Development Banks: Current Authorization Requests

Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Date: October 30, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Date: September 26, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Date: July 31, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Multilateral Development Banks: Issues for the 107th Congress

Date: May 23, 2002
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department