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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program

Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: O'Sullivan, Jennifer
Description: This report discusses Medicare, which consists of two distinct parts — Part A (Hospital Insurance (HI)) and Part B (Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI)). Part A is financed primarily through payroll taxes levied on current workers and their employers. Income from these taxes is credited to the HI trust fund. Part B is financed through a combination of monthly premiums paid by current enrollees and general revenues. Income from these sources is credited to the SMI trust fund.
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Managing Farm Risk in a New Policy Era

Managing Farm Risk in a New Policy Era

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Chite, Ralph M & Jickling, Mark
Description: This report discusses the enhancements to the crop insurance and revenue insurance programs that are expected to be considered by the 106th Congress in order to improve the farm financial safety net and preclude the need for ad hoc legislative assistance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund

Date: May 2, 1997
Creator: Talley, Louis Alan
Description: Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects.
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The Federal Debt: Who Bears Its Burdens?

The Federal Debt: Who Bears Its Burdens?

Date: December 9, 1999
Creator: Cox, William A
Description: This report discusses the federal debt, which quintupled from FY1980 to FY1995 and went from 26% to 50% of GDP. The report examines changing ideas in regards to what segment of the population most feels the effects of growing government debt, and how its effects manifest.
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The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues

Date: March 26, 1997
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution.
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Small Business Disaster Assistance: Responding to the Terrorist Attacks

Small Business Disaster Assistance: Responding to the Terrorist Attacks

Date: November 29, 2001
Creator: Mulock, Bruce K
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: January 5, 2001
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: May 10, 2002
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: August 6, 2002
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: October 7, 2002
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: January 31, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: February 28, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: April 16, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: May 2, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: June 13, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
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Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Privacy Protection for Customer Financial Information

Date: June 30, 2003
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Out-of-State Money in the Congressional Elections of 1992, 1994, and 1996: Trends and Policy Issues

Out-of-State Money in the Congressional Elections of 1992, 1994, and 1996: Trends and Policy Issues

Date: September 26, 1997
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Consumer Bankruptcy Reform: Proposals Before the 105th Congress

Consumer Bankruptcy Reform: Proposals Before the 105th Congress

Date: March 20, 1998
Creator: Jeweler, Robin
Description: This report examines current consumer bankruptcy practice and the proposals set forth in the reform bills. Also considered are the legislative history of the current consumer bankruptcy scheme, and topics likely to be debated as Congress proceeds to consider consumer bankruptcy reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation

Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation

Date: June 28, 1995
Creator: Moore, John L
Description: This report sketches issues underlying broader use of cost-benefit analysis. It focuses on cost-benefit as one of several related frameworks for assessing regulatory actions or policies. Cost-benefit is the broadest of these frameworks, which also include impact assessment, risk assessment, and cost-effectiveness. Which analytical framework is appropriate depends on the regulatory context.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules

Banking's Proposed "Know Your Customer" Rules

Date: August 31, 2001
Creator: Murphy, M. Maureen
Description: On December 7, 1998, federal banking regulators proposed regulations that would have required banks and thrifts to develop formal policies and procedures to identify unusual transactions in customers’ accounts to report as suspicious activity in conjunction with the federal laws outlawing money laundering. Although there were varied proposals before the 106th Congress on the issue, no legislation was enacted. The issue likeliest to command attention in the 107th Congress is international money laundering. There have been recent instances in which banking regulators imposed corrective action, comparable to the Know Your Customer requirements, on several international banking institutions after unearthing potential money laundering activity.
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Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: March 12, 2001
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular in recent federal election cycles. These advertisements are often interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has determined that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech that cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as "express advocacy" or "magic words" can be regulated and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Unlike express advocacy communications, therefore, issue ads may be paid for with funds unregulated by federal law, i.e., soft money.
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Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: May 15, 1998
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy

Date: March 15, 2002
Creator: Whitaker, L. Paige
Description: Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated in any manner. According to most lower court rulings, only speech containing express words of advocacy of election or defeat, also known as “express advocacy” or “magic words” can be regulated as election-related communications and therefore be subject to the requirements of the Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA). Unlike express advocacy communications, therefore, issue ads may be paid for with funds unregulated by federal law, i.e., soft money
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Campaign Finance Reform Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 3581 (Thomas), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law

Campaign Finance Reform Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 3581 (Thomas), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law

Date: April 13, 1998
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E
Description: On March 30, 1998, the House considered four campaign reform bills under a suspension of rules, focusing on the comprehensive H.R. 3581, offered that day for the Republican leadership by Mr. Thomas; it failed passage on a 74-337 vote. (The bill was similar to H.R. 3485, also by Mr. Thomas, reported by the House Oversight Committee March 18.1) The bill generating the most publicity in the 105th Congress has been S. 25 (McCain-Feingold),2 introduced on March 19 as H.R. 3526 by Messrs. Shays and Meehan. This report summarizes and compares H.R. 3581, H.R. 3526, and current law.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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