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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
How Treasury Issues Debt

How Treasury Issues Debt

Date: October 1, 2015
Creator: Driessen, Grant A.
Description: This report examines Treasury's debt management practices, focusing on the auction process, how prices and interest rates of securities are determined, and the role of market participants in the process. It also addresses the role of debt plays in influencing present and future budget outcomes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Recent Stock Market Volatility: What Are the Implications?

China's Recent Stock Market Volatility: What Are the Implications?

Date: February 11, 2016
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Nelson, Gabriel M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the consequences of rapid price increases from about mid-2014 to mid-2015 in China's two main stock markets, the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Recent Stock Market Volatility: What Are the Implications?

China's Recent Stock Market Volatility: What Are the Implications?

Date: January 9, 2016
Creator: Morrison, Wayne M. & Nelson, Gabriel M.
Description: This report briefly discusses the background and implications of the rapid price increases experienced in China's two main stock markets, the Shanghai Stock Exchange (SSE) and the Shenzhen Stock Exchange (SZSE), from about mid-2014 to mid-2015.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s Financial Problems

Fannie Mae’s and Freddie Mac’s Financial Problems

Date: August 10, 2012
Creator: Weiss, N. Eric
Description: This report presents, in analytical question and answer form, the issues surrounding the financial conditions of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which are stockholder-owned government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs). Their federal charters give the GSEs special public policy goals aimed at providing liquidity in the mortgage market and to provide access to homeownership for underserved groups and locations. In return, their charters give the GSEs a special relationship with the government.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: August 9, 2011
Creator: Dilger, Robert J.
Description: This report describes the Microloan program's eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers and examines the arguments presented by the program's critics and advocates. It also examines changes to the program authorized by P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Budgetary Treatment of Federal Credit (Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees): Concepts, History, and Issues for Congress

Budgetary Treatment of Federal Credit (Direct Loans and Loan Guarantees): Concepts, History, and Issues for Congress

Date: June 24, 2014
Creator: Levit, Mindy R.
Description: The purpose of this report is to explain the provisions of the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 or FCRA; examine the implementation of credit reform, including credit reform provisions of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (P.L. 105- 33, §1011; 111 Stat. 254,692); discuss proposed modifications of credit reform; and describe proposed legislation in the 113th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ability to Repay, Risk-Retention Standards, and Mortgage Credit Access

Ability to Repay, Risk-Retention Standards, and Mortgage Credit Access

Date: June 5, 2012
Creator: Getter, Darryl E.
Description: This report examines the developments associated with the implementation of mortgage lending reforms. The report begins with a summary of proposed ability to repay and risk-retention standards. Next, the report describes risky underwriting and financing practices that occurred prior to the mortgage crisis, followed by a discussion of how access to mortgage credit might be affected.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Small Business Administration Microloan Program

Date: May 28, 2015
Creator: Dilger, Robert Jay
Description: The Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) Microloan program provides direct loans to qualified nonprofit intermediary lenders who, in turn, provide “microloans” of up to $50,000 to small businesses and nonprofit child care centers. It also provides marketing, management, and technical assistance to microloan borrowers and potential borrowers. This report opens with a discussion of the rationale provided for having a Microloan program, describes the program’s eligibility standards and operating requirements for lenders and borrowers, and examines the arguments presented by the program’s critics and advocates. It then discusses P.L. 111-240, the Small Business Jobs Act of 2010, which increased the Microloan program’s loan limit for borrowers from $35,000 to $50,000, and the aggregate loan limit for intermediaries after their first year of participation in the program from $3.5 million to $5 million.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace Lending

Treasury Issues White Paper on Fintech and Marketplace Lending

Date: May 20, 2016
Creator: Murphy, Edward V.
Description: This report briefly discusses the context and contents of a white paper issued on May 10, 2016 by the U.S. Department of the Treasury. The paper analyzes regulatory issues for the marketplace lending industry and offers several recommendations for industry and government responses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: July 21, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
East Asia's Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

East Asia's Foreign Exchange Rate Policies

Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Martin, Michael F.
Description: This report examines the de facto foreign exchange rate policies adopted by the monetary authorities of East Asia. In some cases, there is a perceived discrepancy between the official (de jure) exchange rate policy and the observed de facto exchange rate policy. This report will focus primarily on the de facto exchange rate policies
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Social Security: What Would Happen If the Trust Funds Ran Out?

Social Security: What Would Happen If the Trust Funds Ran Out?

Date: August 28, 2014
Creator: Meyerson, Noah P.
Description: This report explains what the Social Security trust funds are and how they work. It describes the historical operations of the trust funds and the Social Security trustees' projections of future operations. It explains what could happen if Congress allowed the trust funds to run out. It also analyzes two scenarios that assume Congress waits until the moment of insolvency to act, showing the magnitude of benefit cuts or tax increases needed and how such changes would affect beneficiaries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: May 14, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: Greece is currently facing such a sovereign debt crisis. On May 2, 2010, the Eurozone members and International Monetary Fund (IMF) endorsed a historic €110 billion (about $145 billion) financial package for Greece in an effort to avoid a Greek default and to stem contagion of Greece's crisis to other European countries, particularly Portugal, Spain, Ireland, and Italy. This report provides an overview of the crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: April 27, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Greek debt crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: April 7, 2010
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report provides an overview of the Greek debt crisis; outlines the major causes of the crisis, focusing on both domestic and international factors; examines how Greece, the Eurozone members, and the IMF have responded to the crisis; and highlights the broader implications of Greece's debt crisis, including for the United States.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 26, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions

International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions

Date: May 15, 2015
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.; Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Murrill, Brandon J. & Shedd, Daniel T.
Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about international investment agreements (IIAs) made between the United States and other countries. Questions are categorized in three main areas: background and context; U.S. international investment agreements; and investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions

International Investment Agreements (IIAs): Frequently Asked Questions

Date: May 5, 2015
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.; Akhtar, Shayerah Ilias; Murrill, Brandon J. & Shedd, Daniel T.
Description: This report answers frequently asked questions about international investment agreements (IIAs) made between the United States and other countries. Questions are categorized in three main areas: background and context; U.S. international investment agreements; and investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Financial Status: Frequently Asked Questions

Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Financial Status: Frequently Asked Questions

Date: August 13, 2013
Creator: Weiss, N. E.
Description: Report that presents the major issues surrounding Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's financial conditions as well as various public policy options under discussion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Greece's Debt Crisis: Overview, Policy Responses, and Implications

Date: August 18, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.; Belkin, Paul & Mix, Derek E.
Description: This report covers the sovereign debt crisis currently faced by the Eurozone which has culminated with Greece, which is at the center of the crisis, Ireland, and Portugal borrowing money from other European countries and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in order to avoid default. Topics covered include: the build-up of Greece's debt crisis, policy responses with limited success, and broader implications. Specific issues for Congress include how the U.S. economy and banking industry will be affect by these recent events.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: January 28, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Currency Manipulation: The IMF and WTO

Date: September 27, 2010
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report describes how the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Trade Organization (WTO) deal with the issue of currency manipulation. It also discusses apparent discrepancies in their charters and ways those differences might be addressed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Capital Markets and International Accounting Standards: GAAP Versus IFRS

U.S. Capital Markets and International Accounting Standards: GAAP Versus IFRS

Date: June 25, 2015
Creator: Gnanarajah, Raj
Description: This report briefly explains the different accounting standards and U.S. capital markets. It examines several International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) policy options Congress might consider and the benefits and challenges of each of those options.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Crisis in Greece: Political Implications

Crisis in Greece: Political Implications

Date: July 7, 2015
Creator: Belkin, Paul
Description: This report briefly discusses the political crisis resulting from what began as a debt crisis in Greece in late 2009. Many analysts believe that this political crisis could represent the most significant setback in over 60 years of European integration.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department