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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
An Analysis of the Regulatory Burden on Small Banks

An Analysis of the Regulatory Burden on Small Banks

Date: April 22, 2015
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report explains the concept of regulatory burden and the different ways it can be manifested. It analyzes whether small banks are relatively more burdened by regulation than big banks. To help answer that question, the report looks at the relative treatment of small and large banks in recent major regulatory proposals.
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How Have Small Banks Been Affected by Financial Reform?

How Have Small Banks Been Affected by Financial Reform?

Date: May 14, 2015
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M. & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report briefly summarizes a CRS analysis of major rules issued since 2010 by banking regulators pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Act.
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"Regulatory Relief" for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress

"Regulatory Relief" for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress

Date: October 15, 2015
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Gnanarajah, Raj; Labonte, Marc; Murphy, Edward V. & Shorter, Gary
Description: This report discusses regulatory relief legislation for banks in the 114th Congress that, at the time this report was published, has seen floor action or has been ordered to be reported by a committee. Many, but not all, of the bills would make changes to the Dodd-Frank Act (P.L. 111-203), wide ranging financial reform enacted in response to the financial crisis.
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"Regulatory Relief" for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress

"Regulatory Relief" for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress

Date: January 19, 2016
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Gnanarajah, Raj; Labonte, Marc; Murphy, Edward V. & Shorter, Gary
Description: This report discusses regulatory relief legislation for banks in the 114th Congress that has seen floor action or has been ordered to be reported by a committee. Many, but not all, of the bills would make changes to the Dodd-Frank Act (P.L. 111-203), a wide-ranging financial reform enacted in response to the financial crisis.
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An Overview of the Housing Finance System in the United States

An Overview of the Housing Finance System in the United States

Date: March 13, 2013
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Jones, Katie & Weiss, N. Eric
Description: This report provides an overview of how the housing finance system works and provides context for housing finance-related policy issues that Congress might choose to consider.
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Senate Banking: Financial Regulatory Improvement Act

Senate Banking: Financial Regulatory Improvement Act

Date: May 19, 2015
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Labonte, Marc & Webel, Baird
Description: This report briefly highlights some of the major policy proposals included in a May 12, 2015 discussion draft released by Senator Richard Shelby that is scheduled for markup by the Senate Banking Committee. The draft encompasses a broad package of reforms to the financial regulatory system, including some changes to the Dodd-Frank Act (P.L. 111-203).
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"Regulatory Relief" for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress

"Regulatory Relief" for Banking: Selected Legislation in the 114th Congress

Date: May 14, 2015
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Labonte, Marc; Murphy, Edward V. & Shorter, Gary
Description: This report discusses regulatory relief legislation for banks in the 114th Congress that, at the time this report was published, has seen floor action or has been ordered to be reported by a committee.
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Selected Legislative Proposals to Reform the Housing Finance System

Selected Legislative Proposals to Reform the Housing Finance System

Date: April 7, 2014
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Weiss, N. E. & Jones, Katie
Description: This report briefly explains the different approaches to housing finance reform offered by several legislative proposals, focusing on efforts to replace Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and to reform the Federal Housing Administration (FHA).
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Selected Legislative Proposals to Reform the Housing Finance System

Selected Legislative Proposals to Reform the Housing Finance System

Date: September 10, 2013
Creator: Hoskins, Sean M.; Weiss, N. E. & Jones, Katie
Description: This report briefly explains the different approaches to housing finance reform proposed by the three bills, focusing on efforts to replace Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac and reform FHA.
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Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer

Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer

Date: April 15, 2010
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the federal debt and net interest payments. Of the three broad categories of federal spending, the only category that cannot be reduced by legislative action is net interest payments. The report provides information about federal debt, interest payments on the federal dept, and determinants of net interest payments.
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Tax Expenditures and the Federal Budget

Tax Expenditures and the Federal Budget

Date: May 26, 2010
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L.
Description: Among the options likely to be considered to deal with the long-term fiscal problem is reform of the federal tax system. The growth of the alternative minimum tax (AMT) and the expiration of the 2001 and 2003 tax cuts in 2010 will likely force some action on tax policy. The perception that the federal tax system is too complex and unfair could lead to public support for tax reform. Past efforts to reform the federal tax system have included policies to rein in the use and expense of tax expenditures--the special deductions, exclusions, exemptions, and credits resulting in revenue losses. This report examines tax expenditures within the context of the federal budget and discusses tax expenditure analysis.
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Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: April 3, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank, EXIM Bank, or the Bank), an independent federal government agency, is the official export credit agency (ECA) of the United States. It helps finance U.S. exports of manufactured goods and services, with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers, primarily in circumstances when alternative financing is not available. Members of the 112th Congress may examine issues related to the Ex-Im Bank that center on the economic rationale for the Bank; the impact of the Bank on the federal budget and U.S. taxpayers; the Bank's support for specific types of business or industries; the current balance between the Bank's advancement of U.S. commercial interests and other U.S. policy goals; the competitive position of the Bank compared to foreign ECAs; and the Bank's organizational structure.
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Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Export-Import Bank: Background and Legislative Issues

Date: February 9, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank), an independent federal government agency, is the official export credit agency of the United States. It helps finance American exports of manufactured goods and services, with the objective of contributing to the employment of U.S. workers, primarily in circumstances when alternative financing is not available. Ex-Im Bank also may assist U.S. exporters to meet foreign, officially sponsored, export credit competition. Ex-Im Bank's main programs are direct loans, loan guarantees, working capital guarantees, and export credit insurance. Ex-Im Bank transactions are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government. The Bank operates under a renewable charter, the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, which requires that all of the Bank's financing have a reasonable assurance of repayment and directs the Bank to supplement, and to not compete with, private capital.
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Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Islamic Finance: Overview and Policy Concerns

Date: November 30, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report discusses Islamic finance, which is based on principles of shariah, or "Islamic law." Major financial principles of shariah are a ban on interest, a ban on contractual uncertainty, adherence to risk-sharing and profit-sharing, promotion of ethical investments that enhance society, and asset-backing. While the Islamic finance industry represents a fraction of the global finance market, it has grown at double-digit rates in recent years.
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Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Date: May 20, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues.
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Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Date: January 1, 2012
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues.
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Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Reauthorization of the Export-Import Bank: Issues and Policy Options for Congress

Date: June 23, 2011
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah
Description: This report provides background information and potential issues and options for Congress relating to the reauthorization of Ex-Im Bank. The scope of this report is limited to Ex-Im Bank reauthorization issues.
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U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

U.S. Government Agencies Involved in Export Promotion: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: November 19, 2010
Creator: Ilias, Shayerah; Hanrahan, Charles E. & Villarreal, M. Angeles
Description: This report provides an overview of the federal agencies that participate in U.S. export promotion efforts and the issues that they raise for Congress. It proceeds first by discussing the coordination, budgets, and functions of federal government agencies involved in promoting exports. Next, the report provides an overview of the missions and activities of key federal government agencies that support exports. The last section of the report discusses agency-related issues for Congress.
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The Berne Union: An Overview

The Berne Union: An Overview

Date: April 5, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides background information about the Berne Union, or the International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers. It is an international organization comprised of more than 70 public and private sector members that represent both public and private segments of the export credit and investment insurance industry.
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China's Currency Devaluation

China's Currency Devaluation

Date: August 17, 2015
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report discusses China's recent changes to its method for determining the value of its currency (the renminbi). On Tuesday, August 11, 2015, the People's Bank of China (PBC), China's central bank, surprised global financial markets by lowering the reference rate of the renminbi, effectively depreciating the currency.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: January 2, 2014
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: June 12, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: July 29, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report discusses the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). CFIUS is an interagency committee that serves the President in overseeing the national security implications of foreign investment in the economy. Originally established by an Executive Order of President Ford in 1975, the committee generally has operated in relative obscurity.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: March 29, 2013
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress' oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department