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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Year: 2011
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues

Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The United States is the largest investor abroad and the largest recipient of direct investment in the world. Some observers believe U.S. firms invest abroad to avoid U.S. labor unions or high U.S. wages, however, 70% of U.S. foreign direct investment is concentrated in high income developed countries. Even more striking is the fact that the share of investment going to developing countries has fallen in recent years. Most economists conclude that direct investment abroad does not lead to fewer jobs or lower incomes overall for Americans and that the majority of jobs lost among U.S. manufacturing firms over the past decade reflect a broad restructuring of U.S. manufacturing industries.
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Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: March 25, 2011
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: This report presents current data on estimated ownership of U.S. Treasury securities and major holders of federal debt by country. Federal debt represents the accumulated balance of borrowing by the federal government.
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Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Foreign Investment in U.S. Securities

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report analyzes the extent of foreign portfolio investment in the U.S. economy and assesses the economic conditions that are attracting such investment and the impact such investments are having on the economy.
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Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

Date: March 7, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time. Some Members of Congress and other observers have grown concerned over the magnitude of the U.S. merchandise trade deficit and the associated increase in U.S. dollar-denominated assets owned by foreigners. This report provides an overview of the U.S. balance of payments, an explanation of the broader role of capital flows in the U.S. economy, an explanation of how the country finances its trade deficit or a trade surplus, and the implications for Congress and the country of the large inflows of capital from abroad.
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Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences

Limiting Central Government Budget Deficits: International Experiences

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report focuses on how major developed and emerging-market country governments, particularly the G-20 and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, limit their fiscal deficits.
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Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Date: January 31, 2011
Creator: Webel, Baird
Description: The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) was created by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act (EESA) enacted on October 3, 2008 to address the ongoing financial crisis. This report provides a brief outline of the programs created under TARP, recent changes made by Congress, and a summary of the current status and estimated costs of the program. It also provides an Appendix that contains detailed discussions of the individual TARP programs.
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Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP): Implementation and Status

Date: March 4, 2011
Creator: Webel, Baird
Description: The Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) was created by the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act1 (EESA) enacted on October 3, 2008, to address the ongoing financial crisis. This report provides a brief outline of the programs created under TARP, recent changes made by Congress, and a summary of the current status and estimated costs of the program. It also provides an Appendix that contains detailed discussions of the individual TARP programs. This report will be updated as warranted by market and legislative events.
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Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: Sovereign debt, also called public debt or government debt, refers to debt incurred by governments. Since the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, public debt in advanced economies has increased substantially. A number of factors related to the financial crisis have fueled the increase, including fiscal stimulus packages, the nationalization of private-sector debt, and lower tax revenue. Even if economic growth reverses some of these trends, such as by boosting tax receipts and reducing spending on government programs, aging populations in advanced economies are expected to strain government debt levels in coming years.
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Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Sovereign Debt in Advanced Economies: Overview and Issues for Congress

Date: May 26, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: Sovereign debt, also called public debt or government debt, refers to debt incurred by governments. Since the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, public debt in advanced economies has increased substantially. A number of factors related to the financial crisis have fueled the increase, including fiscal stimulus packages, the nationalization of private-sector debt, and lower tax revenue. Even if economic growth reverses some of these trends, such as by boosting tax receipts and reducing spending on government programs, aging populations in advanced economies are expected to strain government debt levels in coming years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Veterans' Benefits: Current Life Insurance Programs

Veterans' Benefits: Current Life Insurance Programs

Date: January 4, 2011
Creator: Scott, Christine
Description: Report providing information on the current Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) life insurance programs available for servicemembers and veterans, management and administration issues, and associated policy issues and legislation.
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Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: January 24, 2011
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
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Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Multilateral Development Banks: U.S. Contributions FY2000-FY2011

Date: March 11, 2011
Creator: Nelson, Rebecca M.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
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Multilateral Development Banks: General Capital Increases

Multilateral Development Banks: General Capital Increases

Date: March 4, 2011
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
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Multilateral Development Banks: General Capital Increases

Multilateral Development Banks: General Capital Increases

Date: March 24, 2011
Creator: Weiss, Martin A.
Description: This report shows in tabular form how much the Administration has requested and how much Congress has appropriated for U.S. payments to the multilateral development banks (MDBs) since 2000. It also provides a brief description of the MDBs and the ways they fund their operations.
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The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

The Exon-Florio National Security Test for Foreign Investment

Date: March 30, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report covers the recent background of the Exon-Florio provision with special regards to issues faced in the 112th Congress. The Exon-Florio provision grants the President the authority to block proposed or pending foreign acquisitions of “persons engaged in interstate commerce in the United States” that threaten to impair the national security.
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International Climate Change Financing: Needs, Sources, and Delivery Methods

International Climate Change Financing: Needs, Sources, and Delivery Methods

Date: May 5, 2011
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K. & Leggett, Jane A.
Description: This report discusses the domestic and international efforts to increase foreign assistance to address climate change. Proponents maintain that such assistance could help promote low-emissions and high-growth economic development in lower-income countries, while simultaneously protecting the more vulnerable countries from the effects of a changing climate. The fundamental dispute concerning international financing for climate change centers upon who should pay for it and how.
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Foreign Investment and National Security: Economic Considerations

Foreign Investment and National Security: Economic Considerations

Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report assesses recent international developments as the leaders from a number of nations work to reach a consensus on an informal set of best practices regarding national restrictions on foreign investment for national security purposes. This report also provides one possible approach for assessing the costs and benefits involved in using national policies to direct or to restrict foreign direct investment for national security reasons.
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Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview

Foreign Investment, CFIUS, and Homeland Security: An Overview

Date: March 30, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report gives a brief overview of P.L. 110-49, the Foreign Investment and National Security Act of 2007. Although both the President and Congress are directly involved in formulating the scope and direction of U.S. foreign investment policy, this law broadens Congress’s oversight role; it also explicitly includes the areas of homeland security and critical infrastructure as separately-identifiable components of national security that the President must consider when evaluating the national security implications of a foreign investment transaction.
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Financial Stability Oversight Council: A Framework to Mitigate Systemic Risk

Financial Stability Oversight Council: A Framework to Mitigate Systemic Risk

Date: November 15, 2011
Creator: Murphy, Edward V. & Bernier, Michael B.
Description: This report describes the mission, membership, and scope of the FSOC. It provides an analysis of several major policy issues related to the FSOC that may come before the 112th Congress. This report is intended to be used as a reference by congressional staff working on financial issues. The macroeconomic policy rationales for various financial crisis-related issues are summarized, and a glossary is provided to assist in understanding technical terms. This report is not intended to be read from cover to cover, but instead may be more useful as issues related to the FSOC arise.
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The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

The Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS)

Date: March 30, 2011
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report covers the background and recent history on the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States (CFIUS). This committee has recently emerged from obscurity due to concerns involving foreign investments in U.S. companies and national security.
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The Economic Implications of the Long-Term Federal Budget Outlook

The Economic Implications of the Long-Term Federal Budget Outlook

Date: January 3, 2011
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: Report that analyzes the long-run path of the federal budget in the face of a projected demographic shift as aging baby boomers retire, coupled with the 2007 financial crises.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Trade in Services: The Doha Development Agenda Negotiations and U.S. Goals

Date: March 10, 2011
Creator: Cooper, William H.
Description: The United States and the other 153 members of the World Trade Organization (WTO) have been engaged in a set or "round" of negotiations called the Doha Development Agenda (DDA) since December 2001. The DDA's main objective is to refine and expand the rules by which WTO members conduct foreign trade with one another. This report is designed to assist the 112th Congress to understand and monitor progress of the negotiations and the major issues that the negotiators are addressing. The report provides a brief background section on the significance of services to the U.S. economy. It then explains briefly the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the structure and agenda of the services negotiations in the DDA round, including U.S. objectives in the negotiations. The report concludes with a status report on the negotiations and an examination of potential results.
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VA-Home Loan Guaranty Program: An Overview

VA-Home Loan Guaranty Program: An Overview

Date: January 12, 2011
Creator: Foote, Bruce E.
Description: Report containing a summary of the VA Home Loan Guaranty Program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

The Future of the Eurozone and U.S. Interests

Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Ahearn, Raymond J.; Jackson, James K.; Nelson, Rebecca M. & Weiss, Martin A.
Description: Seventeen of the European Union's 27 member states share an economic and monetary union (EMU) with the euro as a single currency. These countries are effectively referred to as the Eurozone. What has become known as the Eurozone crisis began in early 2010 when financial markets were shaken by heightened concerns that the fiscal positions of a number of Eurozone countries, beginning with Greece, were unsustainable. This report provides background information and analysis on the future of the Eurozone in six parts, including discussions on the origins and design challenges of the Eurozone, proposals to define the Eurozone crisis, possible scenarios for the future of the Eurozone, and the implications of the Eurozone crisis for U.S. economic and political interests.
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