You limited your search to:

 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Medicare: Financing the Part A Hospital Insurance Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs501/
Forest Roads: Construction and Financing
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs475/
Saving Rates: An International Comparison
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs114/
Managing Farm Risk in a New Policy Era
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs831/
Mixing Banking and Commerce Using Federal Deposit Insurance: Industrial Banks and Nonbank Banks
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs58/
Multiple-Group Federal Credit Unions: An Update
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs681/
Fair Trade in Financial Services: Legislation and the GATT
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs115/
The Daiwa Bank Problems: Background and Policy Issues
On November 2, 1995, U.S. banking authorities ordered the Daiwa Bank to close its banking operations in the United States, and a 24-count criminal indictment was issued against it. These actions stem from the bank's admission that Toshihide Iguchi, a rogue trader at its New York branch office, had incurred $1.1 billion in losses over eleven years from trading U.S. Treasury securities and that Daiwa managers had "directed that those losses be concealed" from U.S. regulators. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs202/
Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays
A recurring issue in environmental policy is the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and government. To inform policymakers about these costs, a number of surveys and analyses have been conducted over the years. consistent, basic sources have been an annual survey of costs to manufacturers, conducted by the Bureau of Census(BOC), and an annual analysis of total costs, prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis(BEA). Overall, the BEA analysis showed the nation spent $122 billion for pollution abatement and control in 1994, or about 1.76% of Gross Domestic Product. Personal consumption expenditures for pollution control were $22 billion, government 435 billion, and business $65 billion. These 1994 data represent the end of the annual series; the BOC survey and BEA analysis have been discontinued digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs435/
Out-of-State Money in the Congressional Elections of 1992, 1994, and 1996: Trends and Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs410/
Social Security Financing Reform: Lessons from the 1983 Amendments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs484/
A Reappraisal of Foreign Investment Policy
The rise of the multinational corporation and the increased flow of capital across national borders have raised anew the question of how to treat foreign direct investment, both inward and outward. The U.S. government and, increasingly, other governments advocate that, with some exceptions, economic policies should be neutral in the treatment of investment, foreign and domestic, inward and outward. This report discusses the changing view of foreign investment, both nationally and internationally. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs140/
Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S.: Japan as Number One
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs57/
The Exchange-Rate System: Return to Bretton Woods?
This report focuses on the exchange-rate system set up at Bretton Woods, its breakdown in the 1970s, the current system of managed floating and, finally, proposals to return part or all the way to a more fixed-rate system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs228/
Banking and Finance: Legislative Initiatives in the 105th Congress, Second Session
This report reviews major banking and finance issues that are receiving congressional attention in the 2nd session of the 105th Congress. It will be updated periodically to reflect legislative developments. Relevant CRS products are referenced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs690/
The International Monetary Fund's (IMF) Proposed Quota Increase: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs689/
ISTEA Reauthorization: Highway Related Legislative Proposals in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs499/
Private Mortgage Insurance: Cancellation Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs447/
Social Security: The Relationship of Taxes and Benefits for Past, Present, and Future Retirees
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs777/
World Bank Lending to China
Lending to China from the multilateral development banks (MDBs) increased four-fold between 1985 and 1994, from $1.1 billion to $4.3 billion. China is now the MDBs' largest single borrower country. There is considerable debate today, however, whether the MDBs should continue lending to China. In particular, there is sharp debate whether the World Bank should continue making concessional loans to China. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs330/
Natural Resources: Assessing Nonmarket Values through Contingent Valuation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1010/
Cost-Benefit Analysis: Issues in Its Use in Regulation
This report sketches issues underlying broader use of cost-benefit analysis. It focuses on cost-benefit as one of several related frameworks for assessing regulatory actions or policies. Cost-benefit is the broadest of these frameworks, which also include impact assessment, risk assessment, and cost-effectiveness. Which analytical framework is appropriate depends on the regulatory context. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs188/
Are High Interest Rates a Threat to Sustained Economic Recovery?
A major question that arises in Congress during its considerations of what policies promote and what inhibit the restoration of a healthy economy is the influence that interest rates exert. In particular, are high interest rates a threat to sustained economic recovery? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9033/
Consumer Bankruptcy Reform: Proposals Before the 105th Congress
This report examines current consumer bankruptcy practice and the proposals set forth in the reform bills. Also considered are the legislative history of the current consumer bankruptcy scheme, and topics likely to be debated as Congress proceeds to consider consumer bankruptcy reform. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs599/
Campaign Finance Reform: A Legal Analysis of Issue and Express Advocacy
Issue advocacy communications have become increasingly popular over the federal election cycles. Often these advertisements could be interpreted to favor or disfavor certain candidates, while also serving to inform the public about a policy issue. However, unlike communications that expressly advocate the election or defeat of a clearly identified candidate, the Supreme Court has ruled that issue ads are constitutionally protected First Amendment speech and cannot be regulated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs626/
Credit Union Common Bond Ruling: NCUA v. First National Bank and Trust Co._U.S._ (No. 96-843)
On February 25, 1998, the Supreme Court ruled that federal credit unions may not consist of more than one occupational group having a single common bond. On April 1, the House passed H.R. 1151 (H.Rept. 105-472), which grandfathers existing credit unions and sets standards for future multi-group credit unions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs683/
Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S.: Staging a Comeback?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs229/
Campaign Finance Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 2183 (Hutchison -Allen), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law
As pledged by Speaker Gingrich, the House renewed consideration of campaign finance reform in May 1998. The principal bill is H.R. 2183, known as the freshman bipartisan bill, introduced July 17, 1997, by Messrs. Hutchinson and Allen. Selected floor amendments and substitutes will be in order. The legislation that has generated the most publicity in the 105th Congress has been the McCain-Feingold bill (S. 25), offered on March 19, 1998, as H.R. 3526 by Messrs. Shays and Meehan;1 this has also been offered as substitute amendment no. 13 to H.R. 2183 in the current debate. Table 1 highlights key differences between the two bills, and Table 2 summarizes and compares H.R. 2183, H.R. 3526, and current law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs628/
Consumer Proposals in the Bankruptcy Reform Act of 1998: H.R. 3150, 105th Congress, 2d Session (1998)
This report considers the legislative history of the current consumer bankruptcy scheme. It examines current consumer bankruptcy practice and surveys the consumer proposals set forth in Title I of H.R. 3150, with an emphasis on the likely impact of the bill on family support obligations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs687/
Campaign Finance Reform Bills in the 105th Congress: Comparison of H.R. 3581 (Thomas), H.R. 3526 (Shays-Meehan), and Current Law
On March 30, 1998, the House considered four campaign reform bills under a suspension of rules, focusing on the comprehensive H.R. 3581, offered that day for the Republican leadership by Mr. Thomas; it failed passage on a 74-337 vote. (The bill was similar to H.R. 3485, also by Mr. Thomas, reported by the House Oversight Committee March 18.1) The bill generating the most publicity in the 105th Congress has been S. 25 (McCain-Feingold),2 introduced on March 19 as H.R. 3526 by Messrs. Shays and Meehan. This report summarizes and compares H.R. 3581, H.R. 3526, and current law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs627/
Uniform Standards in Private Securities Litigation: Limitations on Shareholder Lawsuits
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs684/
Japan's Banking Crisis: Causes and Probable Effects
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs201/
Campaign Finance Debate in the House: Substitute Amendments to H.R. 2183 (105th Congress)
This report provides a summary and comparison of the 11 substitute amendments to H.R. 2183, a campaign finance reform bill offered by Representatives Hutchinson and Allen, that, under H. Res. 442, will be in order for consideration by the House. The House began consideration of the bill and these substitute amendments (as well as additional perfecting amendments) on May 21, 1998. This report is intended for use by House Members and staff in preparation for and during House debate and assumes basic familiarity with the underlying issues. It may be updated to reflect further legislative actions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs629/
Wildlife Restoration Projects Fund
Since 1937, a cooperative program between the federal and state governments has existed for wildlife restoration. This program provides federal grants-in-aid to state agencies for conservation through land and water management for wild birds and mammals. While up to 8% of the collected revenues from excise taxes dedicated to the program may be retained by the federal government for administration, all remaining funds are apportioned to the states and territories for use either in wildlife restoration or hunter safety and education programs. Wildlife restoration programs receive all funds generated from the excise tax on firearms other than pistols and revolvers and all funds collected from shells and cartridges. Additionally, one-half of the excise taxes collected from pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment goes for wildlife restoration purposes. Hunter safety and education programs are funded from the remaining half of excise taxes collected on pistols, revolvers, and archery equipment. The states have been authorized by law to use hunter safety and education funds for wildlife restoration projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs386/
China and the Multilateral Development Banks
Congress is currently considering appropriations for U.S. contributions to the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) as well as separate legislation that would require U.S. representatives to these institutions to oppose all concessional loans to China. This report provides a brief analysis of China’s relationship with the MDBs to highlight some issues and help Members of Congress, congressional staff, and observers better understand the context for the current debates in Congress and the multilateral agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs466/
The Abandoned Mine Land Fund: Grants Distribution and Issues
The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA, P.L. 95-87), enacted in 1977, established reclamation standards for all coal surface mining operations, and for the surface effects of underground mining. It also established the Abandoned Mine Land (AML) program to promote the reclamation of sites mined and abandoned prior to the enactment of SMCRA. To finance reclamation of abandoned mine sites, the legislation established fees on coal production. These collections are divided into federal and state shares; subject to annual appropriation, AML funds are distributed annually to states with approved reclamation programs. This report describes the distribution of these funds and the various issues that arise from said distribution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs398/
Effects of Flat Taxes and Other Proposals on Housing: An Overview
Studies have estimated that some of these revisions would cause a decline in demand for houses and significant reduction in house prices--perhaps in excess of 15 percent. These studies, however, presumed a fixed supply of housing; even a limited supply response would greatly decrease predicted asset price effects. Supply response is likely to be large in the long run and not insignificant in the short run. Effects on housing demand might also be mitigated by increases in savings rates and lower interest rates. Thus, effects of the flat tax on housing prices are likely to be limited in the short run and very small in the long run. Rental housing demand, on the other hand, would be encouraged with a shift to a consumption tax base. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs359/
Capital Gains and Securities Transactions Taxation in Japan: Fact Sheet
This fact sheet provides information on the taxation of securities transactions and capital gains income in Japan at the national level. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs155/
Japanese and U.S. Economic Involvement in Asia and the Pacific: Comparative Data and Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs139/
Highway Funding, the States, and New Air Quality Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs814/
Japanese Trade Balance and Exchange Rate: Seeing Through the Numbers
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs266/
One Million Personal Bankruptcies a Year: Economic Implications and Policy Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs682/
Taxes to Finance Superfund
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs358/
The Russian Financial Crisis: An Analysis of Trends, Causes, and Implications
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs989/
Environmental, Health, and Safety Tradeoffs: A Discussion of Policymaking Opportunities and Constraints
This report discusses the implications of cost-benefit analysis and risk assessment in the context of congressional and administrative decision-making structures. It identifies constraints on flexible decision-making and some implications of trying to overcome them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1018/
International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs138/
The Yen/Dollar Exchange Rate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs137/
Banking Acquisition and Merger Procedures
This report discusses in general terms the basic process and time line for banking industry acquisitions and mergers and briefly discusses the May 4, 1998 application by Travelers Group to merge with Citicorp. Among the issues discussed are: potential impact on consumers; whether the new entities would be too big to fail; and, whether competitive equity calls for financial modernization legislation with functional regulation of the securities, banking, and insurance sectors of companies offering customers a full range of financial products and services. Legislative developments on financial modernization issues in the 105th Congress are reported in CRS Issue Brief 97034, which is available on the Legislative Information System. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs686/
Financial Services Trade with Japan
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs265/
Restructuring Electricity Markets, Public Power, and Tax-Exempt Bonds: An Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs688/
FIRST PREV 1 2 NEXT LAST