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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2005
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer

Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer

Date: December 27, 2005
Creator: Hungerford, Thomas L
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

China's Currency: Brief Overview of U.S. Opinions

Date: November 29, 2005
Creator: Sanford, Jonathan E
Description: Many are concerned that China’s currency is undervalued and that this injures the U.S. economy. The Chinese authorities say they are not manipulating their currency and they want to move as soon as possible to a market-based yuan. A new exchange rate procedure was announced in July 2005 but has not resulted in meaningful changes in the yuan’s international value. This report reviews the issues and discusses alternative approaches the United States might take to encourage more rapid reform.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues

Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: The federal government has a long history of providing credit assistance to farmers by issuing direct loans and guarantees, and creating rural lending institutions. These institutions include the Farm Credit System (FCS), which is a network of borrower-owned lending institutions operating as a government-sponsored enterprise, and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which makes or guarantees loans to farmers who cannot qualify at other lenders. When loans cannot be repaid, special bankruptcy provisions help family farmers reorganize debts and continue farming (P.L. 109-8 made Chapter 12 permanent and expanded eligibility). S. 238 and H.R. 399 (the Rural Economic Investment Act) would exempt commercial banks from paying taxes on profits from farm real estate loans, thus providing similar benefits as to the Farm Credit System.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Costs and Benefits of Clear Skies: EPA's Analysis of Multi-Pollutant Clean Air Bills

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E & Parker, Larry
Description: This report examines EPA's analysis and adjusts some of its assumptions to reflect current regulations. The most important adjustment is the choice of baseline. The agency’s analysis assumes as a baseline that, in the absence of new federal legislation, EPA and the states will take no additional action to control SO2, NOx, Hg, or CO2 emissions beyond those actions finalized by mid-2004. This baseline is put forth despite three rules recently promulgated by EPA that limit SO2, NOx, and Hg emissions on a timeframe similar to that proposed by the Clear Skies legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Farm Credit System

Farm Credit System

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Foreign Holdings of Federal Debt

Date: November 23, 2005
Creator: Murray, Justin & Labonte, Marc
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae

Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae

Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: On September 22, 2004, the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Supervision (OFHEO) made public a report that was highly critical of accounting methods at Fannie Mae, the government-sponsored enterprise that plays a leading role in the secondary mortgage market. OFHEO charged Fannie Mae with not following generally accepted accounting practices in two critical areas: (1) amortization of discounts, premiums, and fees involved in the purchase of home mortgages and (2) accounting for financial derivatives contracts. According to OFHEO, these deviations from standard accounting rules allowed Fannie Mae to reduce volatility in reported earnings, present investors with an artificial picture of steadily growing profits, and, in at least one case, to meet financial performance targets that triggered the payment of bonuses to company executives. On November 15, 2004, Fannie Mae reported that it was unable to file a third-quarter earnings statement because its auditor, KPMG, refused to sign off on the accounting results. On December 15, 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), after finding inadequacies in Fannie’s accounting policies and methodologies, directed Fannie Mae to restate its accounting results since 2001. Shortly thereafter, the company’s CEO and CFO resigned. It is estimated that earnings since 2001 will be revised downwards ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation (Including Budgetary Implications)

Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation (Including Budgetary Implications)

Date: November 9, 2005
Creator: Miles, Barbara L & Jackson, William D
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Berne Union: An Overview

The Berne Union: An Overview

Date: November 8, 2005
Creator: Jackson, James K
Description: The Berne Union, or the International Union of Credit and Investment Insurers, is an international organization comprised of 54 public and private sector members that represent various segments of the export credit and investment insurance industry. Within the Berne Union, the United States is represented by the U.S. Export-Import Bank (Eximbank) and the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) and four private-sector firms and by one observer. Congress, through its oversight of Eximbank and OPIC, as well as international trade and finance, has interests in the functioning of the Berne Union.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Caused by a Global Saving Glut?

Is the U.S. Trade Deficit Caused by a Global Saving Glut?

Date: November 4, 2005
Creator: Labonte, Marc
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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