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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2005
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agricultural Credit: Institutions and Issues
The federal government has a long history of providing credit assistance to farmers by issuing direct loans and guarantees, and creating rural lending institutions. These institutions include the Farm Credit System (FCS), which is a network of borrower-owned lending institutions operating as a government-sponsored enterprise, and the Farm Service Agency (FSA) of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which makes or guarantees loans to farmers who cannot qualify at other lenders. When loans cannot be repaid, special bankruptcy provisions help family farmers reorganize debts and continue farming (P.L. 109-8 made Chapter 12 permanent and expanded eligibility). S. 238 and H.R. 399 (the Rural Economic Investment Act) would exempt commercial banks from paying taxes on profits from farm real estate loans, thus providing similar benefits as to the Farm Credit System. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9098/
Industrial Loan Companies/Banks and the Separation of Banking and Commerce: Legislative and Regulatory Perspectives
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7894/
U.S. Direct Investment Abroad: Trends and Current Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6712/
Investing Social Security Funds in the Stock Market: Some Economic Considerations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7697/
Bank and Thrift Deposit Insurance Premiums: The Record from 1934-2004
Since federal deposit insurance first came into being in the mid-1930s, commercial banks and savings associations (thrifts) have paid premiums into government insurance reserves to cover losses due to financial institution failures. Banks and thrifts have come to offer similar services and the government has standardized insurance premiums for the two institutions to reflect their competition. Deposit insurance premiums have been the subject of legislation several times over recent years including measures passed by the House. Most banks and thrifts pay essentially no premiums, but the potential for future assessments continues to drive “reform” legislation. This report provides the rationale and amounts of assessments since federal deposit insurance began and will be updated annually. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8306/
Bankruptcy Relief and Natural Disaster Victims
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, many have questioned whether implementing the new procedures of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (BAPCPA), P.L. 109-8, scheduled to go into effect on October 17, 2005, should be delayed. This report considers whether bankruptcy law in general, and the BAPCPA in particular, may present unique challenges to financial recovery for those whose life, livelihood, and/or home have been damaged or destroyed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7811/
Farm Credit System
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9114/
Hurricanes and Disaster Risk Financing Through Insurance: Challenges and Policy Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7781/
Social Security: Summary of Program Solvency and Projections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7769/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7139/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7138/
Federal Deposit Insurance Reform Legislation (Including Budgetary Implications)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7925/
Social Security: The Trust Fund
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7303/
Multilateral Development Banks: Procedures for U.S. Participation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7310/
Tsunamis and Earthquakes: Is Federal Disaster Insurance in Our Future?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7523/
Social Security Reform: Economic Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7418/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7416/
Credit Rating Agencies: Current Federal Oversight and Congressional Concerns
Credit rating agencies rate the creditworthiness of public companies so that the public will have an objective opinion as to the risk of investment. These ratings have become an important component of the financial reputation of a rated company. However, especially since the bankruptcies of Enron and WorldCom, whose debt had been rated investment grade, there has been concern that perhaps credit rating agencies should be regulated. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7356/
Multilateral Development Banks: Current Authorization Requests
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7347/
Federal Deposit and Share Insurance: Proposals for Change
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6946/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6450/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6305/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6304/
Social Security Reform
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6302/
Campaign Finance
Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, long centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. This report discusses campaign finance practices, enduring issues and today’s paramount issues. In addition it presents the Legislative Action in the 108th and 109th Congress, as well as the Congressional efforts to close perceived loopholes in Federal Election Law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6417/
Campaign Finance
Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, long centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. This report discusses campaign finance practices, enduring issues and today’s paramount issues. In addition it presents the Legislative Action in the 108th and 109th Congress, as well as the Congressional efforts to close perceived loopholes in Federal Election Law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6418/
Campaign Finance
Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, long centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. This report discusses campaign finance practices, enduring issues and today’s paramount issues. In addition it presents the Legislative Action in the 108th and 109th Congress, as well as the Congressional efforts to close perceived loopholes in Federal Election Law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6419/
Campaign Finance
Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, long centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. This report discusses campaign finance practices, enduring issues and today’s paramount issues. In addition it presents the Legislative Action in the 108th and 109th Congress, as well as the Congressional efforts to close perceived loopholes in Federal Election Law. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6213/
Campaign Financing
This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6420/
Terrorist Financing: U.S. Agency Efforts and Inter-Agency Coordination
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7796/
Federal Flood Insurance: The Repetitive Loss Problem
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7693/
Treatment of Health Care Expenses under the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7753/
Should Credit Unions Be Taxed?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7752/
The Economic Effects of Raising National Saving
Raising the share of income we save is a frequent aim of public policy. That may be particularly apparent in debates about the size of the federal budget deficit, but concerns about the low household saving rate have also prompted policymakers to consider ways to encourage individuals to save more. How much individuals save will directly affect their future economic well-being, but from a macroeconomic perspective, the source of saving — be it households, business, or government — makes no difference. This report presents standard economic analysis of the macroeconomic effects of raising saving. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7912/
China and the CNOOC Bid for Unocal: Issues for Congress
The bid by the China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC) to acquire the U.S. energy company Unocal for $18.5 billion raised many issues with U.S. policymakers. This report provides an overview and analysis of the CNOOC bid, U.S. interests, implications for U.S. energy security, U.S. investment in the PRC’s (People’s Republic of China’s) oil industry, the process for reviewing the security and other implications of foreign investment in the United States, Congressional activity, and a listing of unresolved issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7905/
Fundamental Tax Reform: Options for the Mortgage Interest Deduction
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7300/
Structure and Functions of the Federal Reserve System
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7311/
Hurricane Katrina: Insurance Losses and National Capacities for Financing Disaster Risk
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7611/
Interest Payments on the Federal Debt: A Primer
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8311/
Regulation of Naked Short Selling
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8317/
International Financial Institutions: Funding U.S. Participation
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7348/
Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: An Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6352/
Campaign Financing
This is one report in the series of reports that discuss the campaign finance practices and related issues. Concerns over financing federal elections have become a seemingly perennial aspect of our political system, centered on the enduring issues of high campaign costs and reliance on interest groups for needed campaign funds. The report talks about the today’s paramount issues such as perceived loopholes in current law and the longstanding issues: overall costs, funding sources, and competition. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6214/
Accounting Problems at Fannie Mae
On September 22, 2004, the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Supervision (OFHEO) made public a report that was highly critical of accounting methods at Fannie Mae, the government-sponsored enterprise that plays a leading role in the secondary mortgage market. OFHEO charged Fannie Mae with not following generally accepted accounting practices in two critical areas: (1) amortization of discounts, premiums, and fees involved in the purchase of home mortgages and (2) accounting for financial derivatives contracts. According to OFHEO, these deviations from standard accounting rules allowed Fannie Mae to reduce volatility in reported earnings, present investors with an artificial picture of steadily growing profits, and, in at least one case, to meet financial performance targets that triggered the payment of bonuses to company executives. On November 15, 2004, Fannie Mae reported that it was unable to file a third-quarter earnings statement because its auditor, KPMG, refused to sign off on the accounting results. On December 15, 2004, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), after finding inadequacies in Fannie’s accounting policies and methodologies, directed Fannie Mae to restate its accounting results since 2001. Shortly thereafter, the company’s CEO and CFO resigned. It is estimated that earnings since 2001 will be revised downwards by as much as $12 billion, but the formal restatement of earnings is not expected before late 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8305/
Agricultural Disaster Assistance
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) offers several permanently authorized programs to help farmers recover financially from a natural disaster, including federal crop insurance, the non-insured assistance program and emergency disaster loans. In recent years, Congress frequently has made supplemental financial assistance available to farmers and ranchers on an ad-hoc basis, most notably in the form of direct crop disaster payments and emergency livestock assistance. Congress provided an estimated $3.1 billion of such assistance in the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-7) for 2001 and 2002 crop and livestock losses. Some farm groups would like to see similar assistance provided for 2003 losses, particularly in regions of the Midwest and West that have experienced prolonged drought conditions. To date, no ad-hoc assistance has been made available for 2003 losses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7209/
Campaign Finance Reform: Regulating Political Communications on the Internet
In October 2002, the Federal Election Commission (FEC) promulgated regulations exempting from the definition of “public communication” those communications that are made over the Internet. In response to the FEC’s final rules, the two primary House sponsors of BCRA filed suit in U.S. district court against the FEC seeking to invalidate the regulations as opening a new avenue for circumvention of federal campaign finance law. In September 2004, in Shays v. FEC, the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia overturned some of the FEC’s new regulations. In response to the district court’s decision, in April 2005, the FEC published proposed new rules in order to conform to the Shays ruling. The proposed regulations reflect an attempt by the FEC to leave web logs, or “blogs,” created and wholly maintained by individuals, free of regulations under FECA, while extending limited regulation only to uses of the Internet involving substantial monetary transactions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7556/
Securities Arbitration: Background and Question of Fairness
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9208/
Tax Deductions for Catastrophic Risk Insurance Reserves: Explanation and Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7802/
Federal Financial Services Regulatory Consolidation: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7799/
Chapter 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code: Reorganization of a Family Farmer or Fisherman
Chapter 12 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code dealing with “family farmer” reorganization, temporarily extended 11 times since its original enactment, is made permanent by enactment of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, P.L. 109-8. It is amended to include “family fisherman” as well. This report surveys the highlights of this chapter digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9105/
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