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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview
The National Science Foundation (NSF) was created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended (P.L.81-507). The NSF has the broad mission of supporting science and engineering in general and funding basic research across many disciplines. The agency provides support for investigator-initiated, merit-reviewed, competitively selected awards, state-of-the-art tools, and instrumentation and facilities. The majority of the research supported by the NSF is conducted at U.S. colleges and universities. Approximately 82.7% ($3,320.5 million) of NSF's FY2007 $4,049.4 million research and development (R&D) budget was awarded to U.S. colleges and universities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83817/
The National Security Council: An Organizational Assessment
The National Security Council (NSC) was established in 1947. This report describes the history of the NSC, how is structure and influence have varied over the years from one Administration to another, what its current structure and who its current members are, varying opinions as to what the role of the NSC should be, and future developments for the NSC. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26201/
The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress
The Directorate of Science and Technology is the primary organization for research and development (R&D) in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). The directorate is headed by the Under Secretary for Science and Technology. In the past, some Members of Congress and other observers have been highly critical of the directorate's performance. Although management changes have somewhat muted this criticism in recent years, fundamental issues remain, which this report discusses in detail. Congressional policymakers are widely expected to consider reauthorization legislation for DHS during the 111th Congress. Such legislation would likely include provisions that would affect the Science and Technology Directorate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26271/
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Appropriations Overview
Continued funding for NIST extramural programs directed toward increased private sector commercialization has been a major issue. Some Members of Congress have expressed skepticism over a "technology policy" based on providing federal funds to industry for development of pre-competitive generic technologies. This approach, coupled with pressures to balance the federal budget, led to significant reductions in funding for NIST. The Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), which accounted for over 50% of the FY1995 NIST budget, were proposed for elimination. In 2007, ATP was terminated and replaced by the Technology Innovation Program (TIP). As part of the American Competitiveness Initiative, announced by former President Bush in the 2006 State of the Union, the Administration stated its intention to double over 10 years funding for "innovation-enabling research" done at NIST through its "core" programs. In April 2009, the current President stated his decision to double the budget of key science agencies, including NIST, over the next 10 years. While additional funding has been forthcoming, it remains to be seen how support for internal R&D at NIST will evolve and how this might affect financing of extramural efforts such as TIP and MEP. The dispensation of funding for NIST programs may influence the way by which the federal government supports technology development for commercial application. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83820/
The DHS Directorate of Science and Technology: Key Issues for Congress
This report describes the evolving mission, organization, and assets of the S&T Directorate and the activities it conducts. It outlines key policy issues, including the balance of the directorate's programs, its priorities and how they are set, its relationships with other R&D organizations, its mission, its budgeting and financial management, and other concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462303/
Defense: FY2009 Authorization and Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Defense. For both defense authorization and appropriations, this report summarizes the status of the bills, their scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity. This report is updated as events warrant and lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered as well as related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462307/
Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies: FY2009 Appropriations
This report is a guide to one of the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Military Construction, Veterans Affairs, and Related Agencies Subcommittees. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462266/
Presidential Appointments to Full-time Positions in Executive Departments During the 109th Congress, 2005-2006
This report provides an overview of the process for filling positions to which the President makes appointments with the advice and consent of the Senate (PAS positions). It also identifies, for the 109th Congress, all nominations to executive level full-time positions in the 15 departments. Profiles of the departments provide basic information regarding their full-time PAS positions and related appointment activity during the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462545/
Chemical Facility Security: Regulation and Issues for Congress
This report describes the statutory authority granted to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with regards to chemical facility security regulation and the interim final rule promulgated by DHS, and identifies select issues of contention related to the interim final rule. Finally, this report discusses several possible policy options for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462489/
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations
The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers attracts congressional attention because its projects can have significant local and regional economic benefits and environmental effects, in addition to their water resource development purposes. This report provides an overview of the Corps civil works program. It covers the congressional authorization and appropriation process, the standard project development process, and other Corps activities and authorities. It also includes an Appendix on the evolution of Corps civil works missions and authorities and a description of the limits on the Corps' role in levee accreditation and improvements for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31359/
Interagency Contracting: An Overview of Federal Procurement and Appropriations Law
Recently, federal agencies have increasingly resorted to interagency contracting, relying on the contracts or contracting operations of other agencies to acquire goods and services. This increased use of interagency contracting has made it a topic of interest to some members of Congress. This report provides an overview of the federal procurement and appropriations laws governing interagency contracting. It defines key terms used in discussing interagency contracting; surveys the various interagency contracting vehicles; and describes recently enacted and proposed amendments to the laws governing interagency contracting. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31465/
Competition in Federal Contracting: An Overview of the Legal Requirements
This report describes the competition requirements currently governing the procurement activities of federal agencies. It addresses several issues, including what contracts are subject to competition requirements, what constitutes full and open competition for government contracts, and the circumstances permitting agencies to award contracts on the basis of other than full and open competition. It also briefly describes the benefits and drawbacks of competition, situates recent reform efforts within their historical context, and discusses how the policy debates surrounding competition in federal contracting can shape legislative responses. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31464/
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations
This report provides an overview of the Army Corps of Engineers civil works program. It covers the congressional authorization and appropriation process, the standard project development process, and other Corps activities and authorities. It also includes an Appendix on the evolution of Corps civil works missions and authorities and a description of the limits on the Corps' role in levee accreditation and improvements for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103096/
Homeland Security: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Border Surveillance
Congress has expressed a great deal of interest in using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) to surveil the United States' international land border. This report examines the strengths and limitations of deploying UAVs along the borders and related issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10601/
Appropriations for FY2000: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1200/
Appropriations for FY2001: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1204/
Appropriations for FY2001: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1697/
National Guard Personnel and Deployments: Fact Sheet
The National Guard plays a major role in the defense and security of the United States under the federal component of its mission. A January 2008 report by the congressionally chartered independent Commission on the National Guard and Reserves has found that the U.S. military's lack of "sufficiently trained, ready forces available" to respond to possible domestic attacks "is an appalling gap that places the nation and its citizens at greater risk." The report estimated that fewer than 88% of Army National Guard units are "combat-ready." This report presents statistical information on the National Guard's federal role in defense and security, including its deployments in support of the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation Jump Start. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10672/
Appropriations for FY2001: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1700/
Appropriations for FY2002: VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies (P.L. 107-73)
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittee on VA, HUD, and Independent Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1708/
Transportation, the Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, the District of Columbia, the Executive Office of the President, and Independent Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8273/
The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process
The Legislative Reference Service, it was charged with responding to congressional requests for information. For more than 50 years, this department assisted Congress primarily by providing facts and publications and by transmitting research and analysis done largely by other government agencies, private organizations, and individual scholars. In 1970, Congress enacted a law transforming the Legislative Reference Service into the Congressional Research Service (CRS) and directing CRS to devote more of its efforts and increased resources to performing research and analysis that assists Congress in direct support of the legislative process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9442/
Appropriations for FY2000: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs980/
FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5967/
FBI Intelligence Reform Since September 11, 2001: Issues and Options for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5968/
Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5969/
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5975/
Proposals for Intelligence Reorganization, 1949-2004
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5970/
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5974/
Intelligence Community Reorganization: Potential Effects on DOD Intelligence Agencies
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5973/
Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education: FY2006 Appropriations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8043/
Appropriations for FY2002: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2741/
Appropriations for FY2003: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2772/
Appropriations for FY2003: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2771/
Appropriations for FY2003: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2774/
Appropriations for FY2003: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2773/
Appropriations for FY1999: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs667/
Appropriations for FY2003: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, consolidated, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2755/
Appropriations for FY2003: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, consolidated, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2752/
Appropriations for FY2003: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, consolidated, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2754/
Appropriations for FY2003: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, consolidated, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2753/
Appropriations for FY2002: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2737/
Appropriations for FY2002: Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2736/
Taxpayer Protections in the IRS Restructuring Bill: Attorneys' Fees and Damages for IRS Abuses
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs663/
Appropriations for FY2001: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on the Departments of Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary and Related Agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1215/
Army Corps of Engineers Water Resource Projects: Authorization and Appropriations
Report that provides an overview of the Corps civil works program. It covers the congressional authorization and appropriation process, the standard project development process, and other Corps activities and authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227671/
Appropriations for FY1999: Commerce, Justice, and State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to CRS reports that provide analytical perspectives on the 13 annual appropriations bills, and other related appropriation measures. It does not include a detailed explanation or description of the budget or appropriations processes. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, and General Government. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs976/
Appropriations for FY2004: Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4625/
Appropriations for FY2004: Transportation, Treasury, Postal Service, Executive Office of the President, General Government, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury and Independent Agencies of the House Committee on Appropriations the Subcommittee on Transportation, Treasury and General Government of the Senate Committee on Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4624/
Appropriations for FY2004: Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary, and Related Agencies
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This Report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Commerce, Justice, State Appropriations Subcommittees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4626/