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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA or “the authority”) was established approximately one month after United States and coalition forces took control of Baghdad in Iraq on April 9, 2003.1 The authority’s mission was “to restore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, (including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance) and facilitating economic recovery, sustainable reconstruction and development. This report discusses two views on how the authority was established, reviews selected characteristics of the authority, identifies statutory reporting requirements concerning the authority and the reconstruction of Iraq, and explores several policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9933/
Department of Homeland Security Reorganization: The 2SR Initiative
This report focuses primarily on the conclusions and proposals resulting from 2SR pertaining to organization and managerial lines of authority matters. In one of his first actions as Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge’s successor, Michael Chertoff, on March 2, 2005, announced in testimony before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland Security that he was “initiating a comprehensive review of the Department’s organization, operations, and policies.” This effort, he said, would begin “within days.” The results of that undertaking, which came to be known as the Second Stage Review or 2SR, were made public in mid-July. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9942/
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
Responsibility for overseeing reconstruction in post-conflict Iraq initially fell to the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA). Established in early 2003, ORHA had been replaced by June of that year by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). On June 28, 2004, CPA ceased operations. Whether CPA was a federal agency is unclear. Some executive branch documents supported the notion that it was created by the President. Another possibility is that the authority was created by, or pursuant to, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483. This report discusses the issue of CPA's status as an agency, including the uncertain circumstances regarding its creation and demise, as well as relevant legislation and subsequent lawsuits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10420/
Peer Review: OMB's Proposed, Revised, and Final Bulletins
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7779/
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations and FY2007 Request
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10132/
Homeland Security: The Presidential Coordination Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2743/
Homeland Security: The Presidential Coordination Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2742/
Homeland Security: The Presidential Coordination Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1706/
Homeland Security: The Presidential Coordination Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5889/
Homeland Security: The Presidential Coordination Office
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5888/
Homeland Security Office: Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2779/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4579/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4578/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4577/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4576/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4575/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2729/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2728/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2727/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2726/
Executive Branch Reorganization
This issue brief views reorganization as involving the alteration and relocation of both programs and the administrative structure of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes--Congress or the President--and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? Some other related administrative and management reforms are tracked as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1195/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4574/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4573/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2731/
Executive Branch Reorganization and Management Initiatives
This issue brief views reorganization and management as involving the alteration of the program administrative structure and operations of the executive branch for reasons of efficiency, economy, and direction. The underlying issue is who reorganizes or sets management policy—Congress or the President— and by what authority and, also, for what purpose? digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2730/
Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Issues in the 109th Congress
Spurred in part by occasional warnings of potential terrorist threats in the post- 9/11 era, some policymakers have intensified their focus on continuity of operations (COOP) issues. COOP planning is a segment of federal government contingency planning linked to continuity of government (COG). Together, COOP and COG are designed to ensure survival of a constitutional form of government and the continuity of essential federal functions. This report focuses primarily on executive branch COOP activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6223/
Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the background of COOP planning, discusses elements of an effective COOP plan, and reviews the current policies governing COOP planning in the executive branch. The final two sections address issues and policy questions, including, among other matters, the status of agency preparedness, maintaining COOP preparedness, congressional committee oversight of COOP activity, and funding for contingency planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5890/
Continuity of Operations (COOP) in the Executive Branch: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the background of COOP planning, discusses elements of an effective COOP plan, and reviews the current policies governing COOP planning in the executive branch. The final two sections address issues and policy questions, including, among other matters, the status of agency preparedness, maintaining COOP preparedness, congressional committee oversight of COOP activity, and funding for contingency planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4620/
Federal Government Corporations: An Overview
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9156/
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006
This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9737/
The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8656/
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006
This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10518/
The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10153/
Federal Spending by Agency and Budget Function, FY2001-FY2005
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8127/
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA or “the authority”) was established approximately one month after United States and coalition forces took control of Baghdad in Iraq on April 9, 2003.1 The authority’s mission was “to restore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, (including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance) and facilitating economic recovery, sustainable reconstruction and development. This report discusses two views on how the authority was established, reviews selected characteristics of the authority, identifies statutory reporting requirements concerning the authority and the reconstruction of Iraq, and explores several policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6482/
Small Business Administration: Overview and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1689/
Small Business Administration: Overview and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1193/
The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6224/
The National Security Agency: Issues for Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1701/
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA or “the authority”) was established approximately one month after United States and coalition forces took control of Baghdad in Iraq on April 9, 2003.1 The authority’s mission was “to restore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, (including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance) and facilitating economic recovery, sustainable reconstruction and development. This report discusses two views on how the authority was established, reviews selected characteristics of the authority, identifies statutory reporting requirements concerning the authority and the reconstruction of Iraq, and explores several policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5898/
Intelligence Reform at the Department of Energy: Policy Issues and Organizational Alternatives
Congress in 2006 agreed to temporarily consolidate separate counterintelligence (CI) offices at the Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Security Administration (NNSA) into a single CI office under DOE control. This report analyzes both consolidations — the first authorized by Congress at Department of Energy (DOE) request; the second initiated by DOE — and examines the impact of each on the effectiveness of the Department's CI program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94166/
9/11 Commission Recommendations: A Civil Liberties Oversight Board
Among the recommendations made by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (9/11 Commission) in its final report is the creation of a board within the executive branch to oversee adherence to guidelines on, and the commitment to defend, civil liberties by the federal government. This report examines this recommendation and its implications, and will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5755/
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions
After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10146/
Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies
In the United States, the general rule, which derives from common law, is that each side in a legal proceeding pays for its own attorney. There are many exceptions, however, in which federal courts, and occasionally federal agencies, may order the losing party to pay the attorneys’ fees of the prevailing party. The major common law exception authorizes federal courts (not agencies) to order a losing party that acts in bad faith to pay the prevailing party’s fees. This report discusses the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA), which makes the United States liable for attorneys’ fees of up to $125 per hour in many court cases and administrative proceedings that it loses (and some that it wins) and fails to prove that its position was substantially justified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8337/
Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies
In the United States, the general rule, which derives from common law, is that each side in a legal proceeding pays for its own attorney. There are many exceptions, however, in which federal courts, and occasionally federal agencies, may order the losing party to pay the attorneys' fees of the prevailing party. There are roughly two hundred statutory exceptions, which were generally enacted to encourage private litigation to implement public policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26064/
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Appropriations Overview
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. firms and provide the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce. Congressional debate has focused on the merits of NIST's external R&D programs directed toward increased private sector commercialization, including the now terminated Advanced Technology Program (ATP) and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). This report discusses the funding for such programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26080/
A Sunset Commission for the Federal Government: Recent Developments
The sunset concept provides for programs and agencies to terminate automatically on a periodic basis unless explicitly renewed by law. In the last ten years, bills to create a federal sunset commission, modeled on the sunset review process in Texas, have been introduced in each Congress. President Bush called for creation of a federal sunset commission in his FY2006 budget submission. This report discusses this issue and relevant pieces of legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10222/
Forest Service FY2001 Budget Issues, Including Proposals for Land Sales and Trust Funds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1099/
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6548/
Army Corps of Engineers Civil Works Program: Issues for Congress
This report presents the issues considered by the 108th Congress related to the civil works program of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps). The Corps plans, constructs, and operates water resources facilities primarily for flood control, navigation, and environmental purposes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4568/
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