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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2006
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities

The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities

Date: September 21, 2006
Creator: Halchin, L. Elaine
Description: The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA or “the authority”) was established approximately one month after United States and coalition forces took control of Baghdad in Iraq on April 9, 2003.1 The authority’s mission was “to restore conditions of security and stability, to create conditions in which the Iraqi people can freely determine their own political future, (including by advancing efforts to restore and establish national and local institutions for representative governance) and facilitating economic recovery, sustainable reconstruction and development. This report discusses two views on how the authority was established, reviews selected characteristics of the authority, identifies statutory reporting requirements concerning the authority and the reconstruction of Iraq, and explores several policy issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Homeland Security Reorganization: The 2SR Initiative

Department of Homeland Security Reorganization: The 2SR Initiative

Date: September 22, 2006
Creator: Relyea, Harold C & Hogue, Henry B
Description: This report focuses primarily on the conclusions and proposals resulting from 2SR pertaining to organization and managerial lines of authority matters. In one of his first actions as Secretary of Homeland Security Tom Ridge’s successor, Michael Chertoff, on March 2, 2005, announced in testimony before the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Homeland Security that he was “initiating a comprehensive review of the Department’s organization, operations, and policies.” This effort, he said, would begin “within days.” The results of that undertaking, which came to be known as the Second Stage Review or 2SR, were made public in mid-July.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities

The Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA): Origin, Characteristics, and Institutional Authorities

Date: September 21, 2006
Creator: Halchin, L. Elaine
Description: Responsibility for overseeing reconstruction in post-conflict Iraq initially fell to the Office of Reconstruction and Humanitarian Assistance (ORHA). Established in early 2003, ORHA had been replaced by June of that year by the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). On June 28, 2004, CPA ceased operations. Whether CPA was a federal agency is unclear. Some executive branch documents supported the notion that it was created by the President. Another possibility is that the authority was created by, or pursuant to, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1483. This report discusses the issue of CPA's status as an agency, including the uncertain circumstances regarding its creation and demise, as well as relevant legislation and subsequent lawsuits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
State Department and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations and FY2007 Request

State Department and Related Agencies: FY2006 Appropriations and FY2007 Request

Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Epstein, Susan B
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006

Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Coipuram, Jr., Thomas
Description: This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006

Defense Authorization and Appropriations Bills: FY1970-FY2006

Date: June 13, 2006
Creator: Coipuram Jr., Thomas
Description: This report is a research aid, which lists the DOD authorization bills (Table 1) and appropriations bills (Table 2). This report includes all the pertinent information on the passage of these bills through the legislative process: bill numbers, report numbers, dates reported and passed, recorded vote numbers and vote tallies, dates of passage of the conference reports with their numbers and votes, vetoes, substitutions, dates of final passage, and public law numbers. Table 3 shows real growth or decline in national defense funding for FY1940-FY2009. Table 4 gives a more detailed picture of both regular and supplemental defense appropriations from the 103rd Congress to the present (FY1993-FY2005). Table 5 shows the President’s DOD appropriations budget requests for FY1950-FY2005 vs. final amount enacted.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Spending by Agency and Budget Function, FY2001-FY2005

Federal Spending by Agency and Budget Function, FY2001-FY2005

Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Winters, Philip D
Description: This report provides federal spending data by agency and by budget function for fiscal year 2001 through fiscal year 2005. The data, ranked by size, reveal the concentrated nature of federal spending. The largest four agencies (of 51 listed) produce 83% of total outlays and the six largest (of 19) budget functions produce 86% of total outlays. Most of the spending by the largest agencies and within the largest budget functions is either mandatory spending (such as Social Security, Medicaid, and income support, among others), defense spending, or net interest spending on federal debt.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Government Corporations: An Overview

Federal Government Corporations: An Overview

Date: March 23, 2006
Creator: Moe, Ronald C & Kosar, Kevin R
Description: This report provides an overview of federal government corporations, a category currently consisting of some 18 corporate agencies performing functions assigned to them in law. A government corporation, as defined in this report, is an agency of government, established by Congress to provide a market-oriented public service and intended to produce revenues that meet or approximate its expenditures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics

The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics

Date: March 24, 2006
Creator: Moe, Ronald C & Kosar, Kevin R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

The FY2007 Budget Request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

Date: February 16, 2006
Creator: Monke, Jim
Description: This report discusses the FY2007 budget request for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) includes $96.4 billion in budget authority.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies

Awards of Attorneys' Fees by Federal Courts and Federal Agencies

Date: January 24, 2006
Creator: Cohen, Henry
Description: In the United States, the general rule, which derives from common law, is that each side in a legal proceeding pays for its own attorney. There are many exceptions, however, in which federal courts, and occasionally federal agencies, may order the losing party to pay the attorneys’ fees of the prevailing party. The major common law exception authorizes federal courts (not agencies) to order a losing party that acts in bad faith to pay the prevailing party’s fees. This report discusses the Equal Access to Justice Act (EAJA), which makes the United States liable for attorneys’ fees of up to $125 per hour in many court cases and administrative proceedings that it loses (and some that it wins) and fails to prove that its position was substantially justified.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
CFTC Reauthorization in the 109th Congress

CFTC Reauthorization in the 109th Congress

Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Jickling, Mark
Description: This report provides brief summaries of the issues in the 2005 reauthorization legislation, including (1) the market in security futures, or futures contracts based on single stocks, which were authorized by the CFMA, but trade in much lower volumes than their proponents had hoped, (2) regulation of energy derivatives markets, where some see excessive price volatility and a lack of effective regulation, and (3) the legality of futures-like contracts based on foreign currency prices offered to retail investors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Border Security: Key Agencies and Their Missions

Date: January 26, 2006
Creator: Nuñez-Neto, Blas
Description: After the massive reorganization of federal agencies precipitated by the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), there are now four main federal agencies charged with securing the United States’ borders: the Bureau of Customs and Border Protection (CBP), which patrols the border and conducts immigrations, customs, and agricultural inspections at ports of entry; the Bureau of Immigrations and Customs Enforcement (ICE), which investigates immigrations and customs violations in the interior of the country; the United States Coast Guard, which provides maritime and port security; and the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), which is responsible for securing the nation’s land, rail, and air transportation networks. This report is meant to serve as a primer on the key federal agencies charged with border security; as such it will briefly describe each agency’s role in securing our nation’s borders.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Sunset Commission for the Federal Government: Recent Developments

A Sunset Commission for the Federal Government: Recent Developments

Date: July 21, 2006
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A.
Description: The sunset concept provides for programs and agencies to terminate automatically on a periodic basis unless explicitly renewed by law. In the last ten years, bills to create a federal sunset commission, modeled on the sunset review process in Texas, have been introduced in each Congress. President Bush called for creation of a federal sunset commission in his FY2006 budget submission. This report discusses this issue and relevant pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Sunset Commission for the Federal Government: Recent Developments

A Sunset Commission for the Federal Government: Recent Developments

Date: July 21, 2006
Creator: McMurtry, Virginia A
Description: The sunset concept provides for programs and agencies to terminate automatically on a periodic basis unless explicitly renewed by law. In the last ten years bills to create a federal sunset commission, modeled on the sunset review process in Texas, have been introduced in each Congress, including H.R. 3282 on July 14, 2005. President Bush called for creation of a federal sunset commission in his FY2006 budget submission. Bills reflecting an Office of Management and Budget (OMB) draft proposal have been introduced (S. 1399, H.R. 3276, H.R. 3277). Hearings have been held in the House, and on July 20, 2006, the Committee on Government Reform voted to report H.R. 3282 favorably to the House. At the same time, the committee voted to report favorably a related program review bill, H.R. 5766, as amended. Both bills are scheduled for floor action on July 27, 2006. This report will be updated as events warrant.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

Date: July 5, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: The National Science Foundation (NSF) was created by the National Science Foundation Act of 1950, as amended. The NSF has the broad mission of supporting science and engineering in general and funding basic research across many disciplines. The agency provides support for investigator-initiated, merit-reviewed, competitively selected awards, state-of-the-art tools, and instrumentation and facilities. The majority of the research supported by NSF is conducted at U.S. colleges and universities. NSF provides more than 30% of the total federal support for science and mathematics education.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Peace Corps: Current Issues

The Peace Corps: Current Issues

Date: June 2, 2006
Creator: Tarnoff, Curt
Description: As it prepares authorization and Foreign Operations appropriations legislation in 2006, Congress will consider the FY2007 level of funding for the Peace Corps and related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview

The National Institute of Standards and Technology: An Overview

Date: February 13, 2006
Creator: Schacht, Wendy H
Description: This report discusses the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that has a mandate to increase the competitiveness of U.S. companies. NIST research also provides the measurement, calibration, and quality assurance techniques that underpin U.S. commerce.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Negotiated Rulemaking

Negotiated Rulemaking

Date: August 28, 2006
Creator: unknown
Description: This report discusses negotiated rulemaking, a supplement to traditional rulemaking, which is a process in which representatives of federal agencies and affected parties work together in a committee to reach consensus on what can ultimately become a proposed rule. Although negotiated rulemaking is not appropriate for all regulations, advocates believe that the approach can speed rule development, reduce litigation, and generate more creative and effective regulatory solutions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

U.S. National Science Foundation: An Overview

Date: April 19, 2006
Creator: Matthews, Christine M.
Description: This report discuses the National Science Foundation (NSF), which provides support for investigator-initiated, merit-reviewed, competitively selected awards, state-of-the-art tools, and instrumentation and facilities. The majority of the research supported by the NSF is conducted at U.S. colleges and universities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations Highlights

Environmental Protection Agency: FY2006 Appropriations Highlights

Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David & Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the funding of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As enacted in August 2005, Title II of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act for FY2006 (P.L. 109-54, H.R. 2361) provided $7.73 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), subject to an across-the-board rescission of 0.476%.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy and Water Development: FY2007 Appropriations

Energy and Water Development: FY2007 Appropriations

Date: April 5, 2006
Creator: Behrens, Carl E
Description: This report is a guide to the regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. The report lists the key CRS staff relevant to the issues covered and related CRS products.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Homeland Security: Establishment and Implementation of the United States Northern Command

Homeland Security: Establishment and Implementation of the United States Northern Command

Date: August 18, 2006
Creator: Bowman, Steve
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) established U.S. Northern Command (NORTHCOM) to fight terrorism at home. Significant organizational and procedural progress has been made in setting up this organization. However, questions remain concerning interagency relationships and information sharing.
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Defense Transformation: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress

Defense Transformation: Background and Oversight Issues for Congress

Date: August 30, 2006
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The Bush Administration identified transformation as a major goal for the Department of Defense (DOD) soon after taking office, and has justified many of its initiatives for DOD in connection with the concept. Defense transformations can be defined as large-scale, discontinuous, and possibly disruptive changes in military weapons, concepts of operations (i.e., approaches to warfighting), and organization. The issue for Congress is how to take the concept of defense transformation into account in assessing and acting on Administration proposals for DOD. Potential areas of debate regarding the Administration's strategy for implementing transformation include overall leadership and management; the balance of funding for transformation vs. near-term priorities; the roles of DOD offices responsible for transformation; tests, exercises, and metrics for transformation; independent analysis of the Administration's plans; and actions for creating a culture of innovation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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