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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues

Agriculture Biotechnology: Background and Recent Issues

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report discusses issues regarding the impacts of GE crops on the environment and food safety, and whether GE foods should be specially labeled. Underlying these issues is the question of whether U.S. regulation and oversight of biotechnology—with responsibilities spread primarily among the U.S.
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EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

EPA Regulations: Too Much, Too Little, or On Track?

Date: October 5, 2012
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides background information on recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulatory activity to help address concerns surrounding its power. It examines 45 major or controversial regulatory actions taken by, or under development at, the EPA since January 2009, providing details on the regulatory action itself, presenting an estimated timeline for completion of the rule, and, in general, providing EPA's estimates of costs and benefits, where available. The report also discusses factors that affect the timeframe in which regulations take effect, including statutory and judicial deadlines, public comment periods, judicial review, and permitting procedures, the net results of which are that existing facilities are likely to have several years before being required to comply with most of the regulatory actions under discussion.
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EPA Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Plants: Many Questions, Some Answers

EPA Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Plants: Many Questions, Some Answers

Date: November 15, 2013
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) proposals for electric generating units (EGU) Greenhouse Gas Emissions.
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Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Climate Change and Existing Law: A Survey of Legal Issues Past, Present, and Future

Date: August 28, 2013
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report discusses climate change and surveys existing law for legal issues that have arisen, or may arise in the future, on account of climate change and government responses thereto.
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International Environmental Financing: The Global Environment Facility (GEF)

International Environmental Financing: The Global Environment Facility (GEF)

Date: May 5, 2011
Creator: Lattanzio, Richard K.
Description: This report provides an overview of one of the oldest international financial institutions for the environment-the Global Environment Facility (GEF)-and analyzes its structure, funding, and objectives in light of the many challenges within the contemporary landscape of global environmental finance.
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Date: October 14, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: EPA appropriations are included in the annual VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill. Two major issues were whether Superfund cleanups should be accelerated in the absence of statutory reforms and whether the requested state assistance funds are adequate. Because the House and Senate were in agreement on not granting the requested 50% increase in Superfund and in passing increased state funds, the chief conference issue was expected to focus on the roughly $225 million difference between the House and Senate versions. However, a veto threat over Superfund program funding made this a key conference issue.
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Date: January 12, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: EPA appropriations are included in the annual VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill. Two major issues were whether Superfund cleanups should be accelerated in the absence of statutory reforms and whether the requested state assistance funds are adequate. Because the House and Senate were in agreement on not granting the requested 50% increase in Superfund and in passing increased state funds, the chief conference issue focused on the roughly $225 million difference between the House and Senate versions.
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Environmental Protection Agency: An Analysis of Key FY1999 Budget Issues

Environmental Protection Agency: An Analysis of Key FY1999 Budget Issues

Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: On February 2, 1998, the President requested $7.8 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in FY1999. The Senate Appropriations Committee reported S. 2168 (S.Rept. 105-216) on June 12; the full Senate passed the bill on July 17. The House Committee reported H.R. 4194 (H.Rept. 105-610) on July 8, 1998; the full House passed it on July 29; and the Senate passed it on July 30 after incorporating S. 2168's provisions. During the week of October 6, the House and Senate approved the conference report, H.Rept. 105-769, which includes $7.5 billion, thus clearing the bill for the President's signature of October 21 (P.L. 105-276). The Omnibus Appropriations Act (P.L. 105-277) added $30 million more in FY1999 funds.
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The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2002 Budget

The Environmental Protection Agency's FY2002 Budget

Date: January 23, 2002
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: On April 9, 2001, the President requested $7.3 billion in discretionary budget authority for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for FY2002, $512.0 million (or 7%) less than the FY2001 funding level of $7.8 billion. The request would not have continued funding of about $500 million for activities earmarked for FY2001, and contained provisions shifting more enforcement responsibilities to the states. Popular wastewater infrastructure funding, state roles, and the future of Superfund were some of the predominant topics. On July 17, the House Appropriations Committee recommended $7.545 billion,$229 million more than requested (H.R. 2620, H. Rept. 107-159).
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY2001 Budget Issues

Environmental Protection Agency: FY2001 Budget Issues

Date: December 4, 2000
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The request for state and local wastewater and drinking water capital needs was a key issue. The request of $2.91 billion for State and Tribal Assistance Grants, which fund these needs, was about one-half billion less than in FY2000. The House passed $3.18 billion, the Senate $3.32 billion, and the conferees $3.62 billion. The request included $800 million for Clean Water State Revolving Funds, $550 million less than in FY2000. The House passed $1.20 billion, the Senate $1.35 billion and the conferees $1.35 billion. Conferees approved the $825 million requested for Drinking Water State Revolving Funds. Congress denied the Administration's request for a new Clean Air Partnership program. EPA requested $100 million for Mexican border water projects and $15 million for State of Alaska projects. Conferees approved $75 million and $35 million respectively. For state and tribal administrative grants, the conferees approved roughly the requested amount of $1.0 billion.
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