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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Date: January 12, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: EPA appropriations are included in the annual VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill. Two major issues were whether Superfund cleanups should be accelerated in the absence of statutory reforms and whether the requested state assistance funds are adequate. Because the House and Senate were in agreement on not granting the requested 50% increase in Superfund and in passing increased state funds, the chief conference issue focused on the roughly $225 million difference between the House and Senate versions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th

Date: February 10, 1998
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
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Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY1999 Budget

Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY1999 Budget

Date: March 4, 1998
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?

Date: March 11, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses the ways to reduce emissions of six greenhouses gases after the Kyoto meeting on Global Climate Change. Projecting the reductions that would be required if the U.S. were to ratify the treaty is difficult. While emissions of CO are fairly well established and account for 2 about 85% of total carbon equivalent emissions, emissions of the other gases, especially N O, are more uncertain.
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MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

Date: March 24, 1998
Creator: McCarthy, James E & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol

Date: April 10, 1998
Creator: Ackerman, David M
Description: This report discusses the Kyoto Protocol and whether the United States is now legally bound by the Protocol, the legal implications of signing it, whether it could be implemented as an executive agreement without submission to the Senate, and whether the Protocol could be used as the legal basis for regulation of emissions even prior to ratification.
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Superfund: A Brief Comparison of the Chairmen's Bills

Superfund: A Brief Comparison of the Chairmen's Bills

Date: April 13, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; McCarthy, James E; Reisch, Mark & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Statutory Modifications of the Application of NEPA

Statutory Modifications of the Application of NEPA

Date: May 1, 1998
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: From time to time, Congress has considered the operation of the National Environmental Policy Act. While Congress has amended the statute itself only twice since its enactment, Congress has often enacted provisions that modify the application of the Act or specify the extent of the documents that need be prepared in particular instances or contexts. This report collects and lists examples of such provisions.
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Global Climate Change: A Concise History of Negotiations and Chronology of Major Activities Preceding the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention

Global Climate Change: A Concise History of Negotiations and Chronology of Major Activities Preceding the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention

Date: May 5, 1998
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the ongoing international policy debate regarding Global Climate Change and U.S. involvement in the issue of global climate change.The report provides an historical context of the current debate, which is important in understanding the fundamental issues about global climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Proposed Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: May 14, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently engaged in a series of regulatory actions to address the transport of ozone pollution in the eastern United States. This report reviews this situation with respect to an EPA-proposed Ozone Transport Rule and other activities.
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Superfund: A Brief Comparison of the Chairmen's Bills

Superfund: A Brief Comparison of the Chairmen's Bills

Date: May 28, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia; McCarthy, James E; Reisch, Mark & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Stormwater Permits: Status of EPA's Regulatory Program

Date: June 10, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regional Haze: EPA's Proposal to Improve Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas

Regional Haze: EPA's Proposal to Improve Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas

Date: July 9, 1998
Creator: McCarthy, James E; Blodgett, John E; Parker, Larry & Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk Analysis: A Review of Public Policy Issues

Environmental Risk Analysis: A Review of Public Policy Issues

Date: July 15, 1998
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report describes and analyzes key issues and legislative options related to risk analysis and risk management at EPA and considers the potential impact of proposed legislative approaches on EPA's rule-making process and final regulations. The report describes the history of EPA's use of risk analysis and then summarizes and analyzes issues and legislative proposals for increasing such use. Legislative activities in the 105th Congress are described. A list of selected references and an appendix where key terms are defined conclude the report.
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Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion.
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Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R.
Description: Negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) were completed December 11, 1997, committing the industrialized nations to specified, legally binding reductions in emissions of six "greenhouse gases." This report discusses the major provisions of the Kyoto Protocol.
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Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Date: August 31, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This paper examines three reasonably distinct starting points from which a U.S. response to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change is being framed.
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National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

Date: September 14, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Date: October 4, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The dispute between states and industry groups was a legislative issue in the 104th Congress through an amendment to a House-passed Clean Water Act re-authorization bill; the Senate did not act on that bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
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Environmental Protection Agency: An Analysis of Key FY1999 Budget Issues

Environmental Protection Agency: An Analysis of Key FY1999 Budget Issues

Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: On February 2, 1998, the President requested $7.8 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in FY1999. The Senate Appropriations Committee reported S. 2168 (S.Rept. 105-216) on June 12; the full Senate passed the bill on July 17. The House Committee reported H.R. 4194 (H.Rept. 105-610) on July 8, 1998; the full House passed it on July 29; and the Senate passed it on July 30 after incorporating S. 2168's provisions. During the week of October 6, the House and Senate approved the conference report, H.Rept. 105-769, which includes $7.5 billion, thus clearing the bill for the President's signature of October 21 (P.L. 105-276). The Omnibus Appropriations Act (P.L. 105-277) added $30 million more in FY1999 funds.
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The Future of the Citizen Suit After Steel Co. and Laidlaw

The Future of the Citizen Suit After Steel Co. and Laidlaw

Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department