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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 15, 2016
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard's polar icebreaker fleet. Coast Guard polar icebreakers perform a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify the Administration's plans for sustaining and modernizing the polar icebreaking fleet.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

Date: May 15, 2001
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report provides background information concerning the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), discusses air and water quality issues associated with it, and reviews options available to congressional and other policy-makers concerned about its continued use. It includes a discussion of legislation considered in the 106th Congress, which may serve as a starting point for legislation in the 107th.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th Congress

Environmental Protection Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: March 25, 2005
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R & Isler, Margaret M
Description: This report provides an overview of key environmental issues that are receiving or may receive attention in the 109th Congress. The sections on specific issues contain references to more detailed and extensive CRS reports on the subjects covered.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight

Clean Air Issues in the 110th Congress: Climate Change, Air Quality Standards, and Oversight

Date: October 19, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the climate change issue as well as other Clean Air Act issues the 110th Congress may consider.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills: Background and Governance

Oil Spills: Background and Governance

Date: June 16, 2015
Creator: Jonathan L. Ramseur
Description: This report reviews the history and trends of oil spills in the United States, and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Date: August 23, 2007
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report reviews the history and trends of oil spills in the United States, and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background and Governance

Date: September 2, 2010
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report provides background information regarding oil spills in U.S. coastal waters and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup. Based on data between 1973 and 2009, the annual number and volume of oil spills have shown declines- in some cases, dramatic declines.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Oil Spills in U.S. Coastal Waters: Background, Governance, and Issues for Congress

Date: April 24, 2007
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L.
Description: This report reviews the history and trends of oil spills in the United States, and identifies the legal authorities governing oil spill prevention, response, and cleanup.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Description: This report discusses a recurring issue in environmental policy: the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Activities of the U.S. Coast Guard

Environmental Activities of the U.S. Coast Guard

Date: August 31, 2007
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L. & Reisch, Mark
Description: This report discusses the U.S. Coast Guard’s (USCG’s) environmental activities, which focus on prevention programs, accompanied by enforcement and educational activities. An important component is maritime oil spill prevention, which includes inspection of U.S. and foreign-flagged ships to ensure compliance with U.S. laws and international agreements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

Date: March 12, 2013
Creator: Lyke, Bob & Shorter, Gary
Description: This report discusses the impact of environmental regulation on agriculture. Most environmental regulations, in terms of permitting, inspection, and enforcement, are implemented by state and local governments, often based on federal EPA regulatory guidance. In some cases, agriculture is the direct or primary focus of the regulatory actions. In other cases, agriculture is one of many affected sectors. Traditionally, farm and ranch operations have been exempt or excluded from many environmental regulations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

Environmental Regulation and Agriculture

Date: June 16, 2014
Creator: Stubbs, Megan
Description: This report provides the background, status, and issues related to selected environmental regulations or initiatives possibly affecting agriculture that have drawn attention in and beyond Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brownfields and Superfund Issues in the 108th Congress

Brownfields and Superfund Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: October 13, 2004
Creator: Reisch, Mark
Description: This report discusses recent development and background issues, superfund issues, revenue issues, comprehensive reauthorization, and legislation regarding superfund program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Clean Water Act and Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) of Pollutants

Date: October 25, 2006
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act, which requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act: A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Clean Air Act: A Summary of the Act and Its Major Requirements

Date: February 15, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.; Copeland, Claudia; Parker, Larry & Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report summarizes the Clean Air Act and its major regulatory requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Everglades Restoration: CERP and the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP)

Everglades Restoration: CERP and the Central Everglades Planning Project (CEPP)

Date: May 15, 2014
Creator: Stern, Charles V.
Description: This report provides definition for everglades, describes what is the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP), and discusses the restoration of everglades project.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Coast Guard Polar Icebreaker Modernization: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: July 1, 2014
Creator: unknown
Description: This report provides background information and issues for Congress on the sustainment and modernization of the Coast Guard’s polar icebreaker fleet, which performs a variety of missions supporting U.S. interests in polar regions. The Coast Guard’s proposed FY2015 budget requests $6 million to continue initial acquisition activities for a new polar icebreaker. The issue for Congress is whether to approve, reject, or modify Coast Guard plans for sustaining and modernizing its polar icebreaking fleet. Congressional decisions on this issue could affect Coast Guard funding requirements, the Coast Guard’s ability to perform its polar missions, and the U.S. shipbuilding industrial base.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

Overview of EPA and the Army Corps’ Rule to Define “Waters of the United States”

Date: June 3, 2015
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report describes the revised rule of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) which defines the scope of waters protected under the Clean Water Act (CWA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 110th Congress: Implementation and Oversight

Clean Air Act Issues in the 110th Congress: Implementation and Oversight

Date: January 3, 2007
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report provides a discussion of several interrelated air issues of interest in the 110th Congress, including revision of the particulate standards, the role of independent scientific review in the setting of air quality standards, multi-pollutant legislation for electric power plants, mercury from power plants, and New Source Review. This report provides an overview of these issues; CRS reports that contain additional information and detailed sources are referenced in the appropriate sections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Climate Change Legislation in the 110th Congress

Climate Change Legislation in the 110th Congress

Date: November 7, 2008
Creator: Ramseur, Jonathan L. & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report briefly discusses the basic concepts on which climate change bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research; emissions reduction technologies; U.S. actions pursuant to international emission reduction agreements; adaptation to the effects of climate change; GHG reporting and registration; and GHG emissions reduction programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 109th Congress

Date: January 3, 2005
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Description: This report discusses major decisions on clean air issues facing the courts and the executive branch in 2006. One focus will be EPA's recent proposal to strengthen air quality standards for fine particles. Other issues of continuing interest are EPA's 2005 decisions limiting interstate transport of air pollution and establishing cap-and-trade systems for emissions from coal fired power plants, and the agency's proposed changes to New Source Review.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brownfields and Superfund Issues in the 108th Congress

Brownfields and Superfund Issues in the 108th Congress

Date: October 22, 2003
Creator: Reisch, Mark
Description: This report discusses the Superfund program designed for cleaning up the nation’s worst hazardous waste sites was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, or CERCLA (P.L. 96-510, as amended). This report discusses recent development and background issues, superfund issues, revenue issues, comprehensive reauthorization, and legislation regarding superfund program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos v. United States

The Wetlands Coverage of the Clean Water Act is Revisited by the Supreme Court: Rapanos v. United States

Date: September 12, 2006
Creator: Meltz, Robert & Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report discusses the Supreme Court decision in Rapanos v. United States, which addressed the asserted jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) over wetlands adjacent to "waters of the United States," the problematic phrase used by the Clean Water Act (CWA) to define the geographic scope of the act's wetlands permitting program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water: Regulatory Issues and Legislative Actions

Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water: Regulatory Issues and Legislative Actions

Date: November 9, 2007
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: Perchlorate is the explosive component of solid rocket fuel, fireworks, road flares, and other products. Used mainly by the Department of Defense (DOD) and related industries, perchlorate also occurs naturally and is present in some organic fertilizer.This report reviews perchlorate water contamination issues and recent developments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department