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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Laws: Summaries of Major Statutes Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency
This report summarizes several federal statutes providing legal authority for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) programs and activities. These include: the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Ocean Dumping Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA), the Emergency Planning Act, and the Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93953/
Water Infrastructure Projects Designated in EPA Appropriations: Trends and Policy Implications
This report discusses appropriations for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) water infrastructure programs, focusing on congressional special project designations in the account that funds these programs. While some Members of Congress, interest groups, and Administration officials are critical of these types of congressional actions, there is little indication that the practice will cease. Information on the programmatic history of EPA involvement in assisting wastewater treatment and drinking water projects also is provided in two appendixes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462257/
Cruise Ship Pollution: Background, Laws and Regulations, and Key Issues
This report describes the several types of waste streams that cruise ships may discharge and emit. It identifies the complex body of international and domestic laws that address pollution from cruise ships. It then describes federal and state legislative activity concerning cruise ships in Alaskan waters and activities in a few other states, as well as current industry initiatives to manage cruise ship pollution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87283/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10127/
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
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Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10167/
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10141/
Climate Change Legislation in the 113th Congress
Report regarding legislative actions that explicitly address climate change issues. The provisions in these bills fall into six general categories: carbon price (i.e., tax or fee) on greenhouse (GHG) emissions; other mechanisms intended to encourage mitigation of GHG emissions (e.g., sequestration of emissions); research on climate change-related issues; adaptation activities related to expected climate change impacts; support for international climate change-related activities; and action that limits or prohibits climate change-related authorities, efforts, or considerations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227933/
The Liability Exemptions in the Senate Brownfields Bill (S. 350)
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Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns
This meeting of the decision making body of the WTO was expected to make decisions that would lead to another round of negotiations on a wide variety of trade rules and related issues. Although the United States continues to assert the necessity of pursuing the twin goals of free trade and environmental protection and to argue that these need not be in conflict, controversy remains over how the multilateral trading system should address the specifics of environmental issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1004/
The Liability Exemptions in the Senate Brownfields Bill (S. 350)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10009/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10056/
Clean Water Act: Legislation Concerning Discharges from Recreational Boats
The Environmental Protection Agency is attempting to develop a regulatory response to a 2006 federal court ruling that vacated a long-standing rule that exempts discharges associated with the normal operation of vessels from permit requirements of the Clean Water Act. Concern that this ruling could require millions of recreational boaters to obtain permits has led to the introduction of legislation to exempt these and other types of vessels from water quality regulation. This report discusses background to the issue; bills introduced in response, two of which were passed by Congress on July 22; and draft permits proposed by EPA on June 17. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10738/
Clean Water Act: Legislation Concerning Discharges from Recreational Boats
The Environmental Protection Agency is attempting to develop a regulatory response to a 2006 federal court ruling that vacated a long-standing rule that exempts discharges associated with the normal operation of vessels from permit requirements of the Clean Water Act. Concern that this ruling could require millions of recreational boaters to obtain permits has led to the introduction of legislation to exempt these and other types of vessels from water quality regulation. This report discusses background to the issue; bills introduced in response, two of which were passed by Congress on July 22; and draft permits proposed by EPA on June 17. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10739/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
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Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1391/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1653/
DOE Environmental Technology Department - A Fact Sheet
The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development in 1989 to develop faster and less expensive technical solutions to the Department's widespread environmental problems, primarily the legacy of decades of nuclear weapons production. Without new environmental technologies, DOE contends, some types of contamination may prove impossible to clean up. The Office of Technology Development, which is part of DOE's Environmental Management Program (EM), manages all stages of the development of new environmental restoration and waste management technologies, from basic research and development through final testing, demonstration and evaluation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs111/
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol
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Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
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Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol
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Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY2000 Budget
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Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8438/
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Regulatory Develpoments and Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8439/
The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment
Several times during the 1990s the Supreme Court struck down federal enactments as exceeding Congress' power under the Commerce Clause or Tenth Amendment. This report briefly reviews three of these decisions -- United States v. Lopez, New York v. United States, and Printz v. United States. Its focus, however, is how these cases have played out in subsequent lower-court challenges to federal environmental laws. The report shows that Supreme Court rulings in favor of these states notwithstanding, such laws have generally, though not always, been found within Commerce Clause and Tenth Amendment limits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs969/
Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits
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Global Climate Change: A Concise History of Negotiations and Chronology of Major Activities Preceding the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention
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Air Quality Issues and Animal Agriculture: A Primer
This report focuses on the environmental quality of water resources as affected by animal agriculture, specifically animal waste, which can harm water quality through surface runoff, direct discharges, spills, and leaching into soil and groundwater. This report also discusses the contribution of emissions from animal feeding operations (AFO), enterprises where animals are raised in confinement, to air pollution. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8641/
The National Environment Policy Act: Streamlining NEPA
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The National Environment Policy Act: Streamlining NEPA
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Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs526/
Global Climate Change: Reducing Greenhouse Gases - How Much from What Baseline?
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Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5732/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5736/
Global Climate Change: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5733/
A Directory of Some Interest Groups and Governmental Organizations Concerned With National Environmental Policies
This report briefly describes selected associations that have demonstrated strong and continuous interest in environmental protection policies of the United States. It provides background information on some of the active participants in national policy discussions. The set of organizations abstracted for this report is not comprehensive; many groups necessarily have been omitted, often because they failed to respond to our request for information. An attempt was made to balance divergent political opinions and to include groups with different perspectives. All associations included in the report have nationwide membership, maintain an office in the vicinity of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and actively seek to influence national (as opposed to international or regional) environmental policies. The financial information provided varies depending on what was available to CRS. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs55/
Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY1999 Budget
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Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs524/
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments
If general regulatory reform bills were enacted, debates on statute-specific reauthorizations could shift from regulatory reforms to the substantive regulatory requirements of each Act. In this case, regulatory reform could consist of proposals to modify statutory requirements to reduce costs to the private sector and State and local governments, to increase flexibility, and to reduce or compensate regulatory impacts on the value of private property. At issue would be a series of potential tradeoffs, for example among efficiency of environmental regulations, national consistency versus local flexibility, protection of private property rights, and degrees of health and environmental protection. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs113/
Right to a Clean Environment Provisions in State Constitutions, and Arguments as to a Federal Counterpart
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Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2391/
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation
At the state and local level, many observers have expressed long-standing concerns over delays, duplication of effort, and additional costs frequently associated with the environmental review process for highway projects that must be completed under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA, P.L. 91-190). To address these concerns, the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA21, P.L. 105-178), enacted in 1998, requires the Federal Highway Administration(FHWA) to streamline the environmental review process for highway projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2390/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6516/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6545/
Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the arsenic’s health effects and how to reduce the uncertainty in assessing health risks associated with exposure to low levels of arsenic. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued the current standard of 50 parts per billion (ppb) in 1975. . This report reviews EPA efforts to develop a new arsenic rule and summarizes key provisions and subsequent events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2047/
Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs286/
Climate Change Legislation in the 108th Congress
Climate change and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been an issue in the 108th Congress, as they have been over the past decade. Bills directly addressing climate change issues range from those focused primarily on climate change research (H.R. 1578 and S. 1164) to comprehensive emissions cap and trading programs for all six greenhouse gases (S. 139 and H.R. 4067). This report briefly discusses basic concepts on which these bills are based, and compares major provisions of the bills in each of the following categories: climate change research, GHG reporting and registries, and cap and trade programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6136/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2623/
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2128/
Global Climate Change: Selected Legal Questions About the Kyoto Protocol
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2129/