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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources

Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report discusses protocols and treaties designed and implemented to protect Antarctica as a haven for environmental research, preservation, and conservation, as well as related legislation and Congressional efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
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California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

Date: April 13, 1995
Creator: Mayer, Susan L
Description: On April 10, 1995, President Clinton signed P.L. 104-6, which contained a provision that rescinds the Federal air quality implementation plan (FIP) for the South Coast, Ventura, and Sacramento areas of California.(1) As a result, the FIP issued by EPA has no further force and effect, and California will continue pursuing approval of its own State implementation plan (SIP) in lieu of the FIP. Promulgation of the FIP was perceived by some within the State as having a detrimental effect on California's industries and economy resulting from costly and burdensome air pollution control measures contained in the plan.
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Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Date: May 12, 1995
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: After global warming became a concern in the mid-1950s, researchers proposed measuring deep ocean temperatures to reveal any significant trends in core ocean warming. Acoustic thermometry can detect changes in ocean temperature by receiving low-frequency sounds transmitted across an ocean basin because the speed of sound is proportional to water temperature. Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate, or ATOC, is an international program involving 11 institutions in seven nations. It is designed as a 30-month "proof-of-concept" project to provide data on possible global climate change, with funding provided by the U.S. Department of Defense. A debate has arisen over ATOC's impact on marine mammals versus the benefits of better global warming information derived from ATOC. This report dicusses the ATOC program and related concerns.
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Voluntary Programs to Reduce Pollution

Voluntary Programs to Reduce Pollution

Date: July 13, 1995
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
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International Forest Agreements: Current Status

International Forest Agreements: Current Status

Date: September 11, 1995
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
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Environmental Protection Agency FY1996 Appropriations: Analyses of House-Passed Riders

Environmental Protection Agency FY1996 Appropriations: Analyses of House-Passed Riders

Date: November 3, 1995
Creator: Lee, Martin R; Copeland, Claudia; Mayer, Susan L; McCarthy, James E; Schierow, Linda-Jo; Tiemann, Mary et al.
Description: On July 31, 1995, in passing H.R.2099, the VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill for FY1996, the House approved numerous legislative riders, or provisions in bill language, which would prohibit EPA from spending FY1996 funds on a number of regulatory and enforcement activities. In passing H.R. 2099 on September 27, 1995, the Senate did not accept the House-passed riders but did include several other riders. On November 2, 1995, the House approved a motion to instruct the House conferees to strike the 17 major House-passed riders.
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Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues

Safe Drinking Water Act Reauthorization Issues

Date: June 20, 1996
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Polar Research: U.S. Policy and Interests

Polar Research: U.S. Policy and Interests

Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Mielke, James E
Description: None
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Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate

Global Climate Change: Adequacy of Commitments Under the U.N. Framework Convention and the Berlin Mandate

Date: October 25, 1996
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) convened July 8-19, 1996, in Geneva, Switzerland.
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International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties

International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties

Date: November 5, 1996
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
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Clean Air Act Issues

Clean Air Act Issues

Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
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Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Reauthorization

Safe Drinking Water Act: Implementation and Reauthorization

Date: December 3, 1996
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: December 4, 1996
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the effect of human activities on global climate change. Human activities, particularly burning of fossil fuels, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace gases, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous oxide.
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The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: December 13, 1996
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
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Environmental Protection Issues: From the 104th to the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Issues: From the 104th to the 105th Congress

Date: January 7, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The continued interest in regulatory reform measures in the final moments of the 104th Congress suggests that the 105th Congress will consider them again. At the same time the fact that the 104th Congress enacted flexibility provisions in drinking water and food safety/pesticides legislation could be an indicator that the 105th Congress may pursue reforms in individual reauthorization legislation rather than in broad regulatory reform bills.
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Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: A recurring issue in environmental policy is the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and government. To inform policymakers about these costs, a number of surveys and analyses have been conducted over the years. consistent, basic sources have been an annual survey of costs to manufacturers, conducted by the Bureau of Census(BOC), and an annual analysis of total costs, prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis(BEA). Overall, the BEA analysis showed the nation spent $122 billion for pollution abatement and control in 1994, or about 1.76% of Gross Domestic Product. Personal consumption expenditures for pollution control were $22 billion, government 435 billion, and business $65 billion. These 1994 data represent the end of the annual series; the BOC survey and BEA analysis have been discontinued
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Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Description: This report discusses a recurring issue in environmental policy: the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and governments.
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Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Safe Drinking Water Act: State Revolving Fund Program

Date: June 4, 1997
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
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Clean Water Issues in the 105th Congress

Clean Water Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: August 21, 1997
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: For the 105th Congress, reauthorization of the Clean Water Act may be a priority in the second session. The Act was last amended in 1987 and authorizations expired on Sept. 30, 1990. Clean water was a priority for the last two Congresses, but no legislation was enacted. In the 104th Congress, the House passed a comprehensive reauthorization bill, but during House debate and subsequently, controversies arose over whether and how the Act should be made more flexible and less burdensome on regulated entities. Issues likely to be of interest again in the 105th Congress include funding, overall flexibility and regulatory reform of water quality programs, and measures to address polluted runoff from farms and city streets.
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Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund (LUST)

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Trust Fund (LUST)

Date: August 28, 1997
Creator: Noto, Nonna A
Description: None
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Clean Water Act and TMDLs

Clean Water Act and TMDLs

Date: September 11, 1997
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires states to identify waters that are impaired by pollution, even after application of pollution controls. For those waters, states must establish a total maximum daily load (TMDL) of pollutants to ensure that water quality standards can be attained. Implementation of this provision has been dormant until recently, when states and EPA were prodded by numerous lawsuits. The TMDL issue has become controversial, in part because of requirements and costs now facing states to implement a 25-year-old provision of the law. Congressional activity to reauthorize the Act, a possibility in the 2nd Session of the 105th Congress, could include TMDL issues, but the direction for any such action is unclear at this time.
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Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: September 18, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
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Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?

Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?

Date: October 2, 1997
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Trade negotiating objectives have generally been included in fast-track legislation to establish priorities for trade negotiators.
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