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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Evolution of the Meaning of "Waters of the United States" in the Clean Water Act

Evolution of the Meaning of "Waters of the United States" in the Clean Water Act

Date: August 8, 2016
Creator: Mulligan, Stephen P.
Description: This report examines the changing definition of the phrase, "waters of the United States." The scope of waters that are properly the subject of federal water pollution legislation has been the subject of long-standing consideration by all three branches of the federal government, particularly in the aftermath of the 1972 amendments to the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, commonly referred to as the Clean Water Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Whether broader expansions from federal environmental laws are needed to preserve military readiness has been an issue. Questions have been raised as to whether environmental requirements have limited military training activities to the point that readiness would be compromised. The potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality have raised additional questions. Although certain exemptions the Department of Defense (DOD) first requested in FY2003 have been enacted into law, Congress has opposed others. From FY2003 to FY2008, DOD requested exemptions from the Clean Air Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. To date, Congress has not enacted these three latter exceptions. The Administration's FY2009 defense authorization bill does not include these exemptions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness. There has also been disagreement over the potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality. This report outlines this issue and relevant legislation in detail.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: May 19, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness. There also has been disagreement over the potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: June 2, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: May 16, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report discusses the difficulty of assessing the impact of environmental requirements on military readiness, broader exemptions for military activities that Congress has enacted, and DOD's request for additional exemptions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 3, 2007
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Over time, Congress has included exemptions in several environmental statutes to ensure that requirements of those statutes would not restrict military training needs to the extent that national security would be compromised. This report discusses these exemptions and congressional disagreement over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fast-Track Trade Authority Proposals: Which Environmental Issues are Included in the Principal Negotiating Objectives?

Fast-Track Trade Authority Proposals: Which Environmental Issues are Included in the Principal Negotiating Objectives?

Date: October 17, 1997
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Environmental provisions are eligible for the fast-track procedure only if they meet at least one of the principal trade negotiating objectives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?

Fast-Track Trade Authority: Which Environmental Issues are "Directly Related to Trade"?

Date: October 2, 1997
Creator: Wilson, Arlene
Description: This report discusses fast-track negotiating authority, which provides that Congress will consider trade agreements within mandatory deadlines, with limited debate, and without amendment. Trade negotiating objectives have generally been included in fast-track legislation to establish priorities for trade negotiators.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision in Massachusetts v. EPA: A Chronology

Federal Agency Actions Following the Supreme Court's Climate Change Decision in Massachusetts v. EPA: A Chronology

Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: This report offers a chronology of major federal agency actions, mainly by EPA, that involve GHGs or climate change and that occurred in the wake of Massachusetts v. EPA, a ruling that greenhouse gases are "air pollutants" via the Clean Air Act. As such, they are not under the EPA's jurisdiction.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Civil and Criminal Penalties Possibly Applicable to Parties Responsible for the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

Federal Civil and Criminal Penalties Possibly Applicable to Parties Responsible for the Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill

Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill began on April 20, 2010, Congress has given much attention to the compensatory liability provisions of the Oil Pollution Act and, to a lesser extent, those of the Jones Act and the Death on the High Seas Act. However, federal laws possibly relevant to the oil spill also impose civil and criminal money penalties, which may reach dollar amounts in connection with the Gulf spill greater than those for compensatory liability. This report summarizes selected federal civil and criminal penalty provisions that may be found violated in connection with the Gulf spill and related worker fatalities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Date: October 7, 2014
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report focuses on enforcement of federal environmental pollution control requirements under the Clean Air Act (CAA); the Clean Water Act (CWA); the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund); and other statutes for which EPA is the primary federal implementing agency.1 The report provides a brief synopsis of the statutory framework that serves as the basis for pollution control enforcement, including an overview of the key players responsible for correcting violations and maintaining compliance. Implementation and enforcement of pollution control laws are interdependent and carried out by a wide range of actors including federal, state, tribal, and local governments; the regulated entities themselves; the courts; interest groups; and the general public.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Federal Pollution Control Laws: How Are They Enforced?

Date: July 7, 2012
Creator: Esworthy, Robert
Description: This report provides an overview of the statutory framework, key players, infrastructure, resources, tools, and operations associated with enforcement and compliance of the major pollution control laws and regulations administered by Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It also outlines the roles of federal (including regional offices) and state regulators, as well as the regulated community.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Future of the Citizen Suit After Steel Co. and Laidlaw

The Future of the Citizen Suit After Steel Co. and Laidlaw

Date: January 5, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: September 7, 2005
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: May 10, 1993
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: December 19, 2003
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: January 3, 2003
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: April 12, 2005
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: September 26, 2001
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses different perspectives used to consider issues related to the global climate change and issues related to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Agreement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: August 13, 2001
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses different perspectives used to consider issues related to the global climate change and issues related to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Agreement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: December 14, 2001
Creator: Justus, John R & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This report discusses different perspectives used to consider issues related to the global climate change and issues related to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change and the 1997 Kyoto Agreement.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department