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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Clean Water Act Section 401: Background and Issues

Date: October 4, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: Section 401 of the Clean Water Act requires that an applicant for a federal license or permit provide a certification that any discharges from the facility will comply with the Act, including water quality standard requirements. Disputes have arisen over the states' exercise of authority under Section 401. Until recently, much of the debate over the Section 401 certification issue has been between states and hydropower interests. A 1994 Supreme Court decision which upheld the states' authority in this area dismayed development and hydroelectric power interest groups. The dispute between states and industry groups was a legislative issue in the 104th Congress through an amendment to a House-passed Clean Water Act re-authorization bill; the Senate did not act on that bill.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

Date: September 14, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

Date: August 31, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change Treaty: The Kyoto Protocol

Date: July 31, 1998
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Environmental Protection: Defense-Related Programs

Date: July 28, 1998
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: The Department of Defense (DOD) operates six environmental programs that address cleanup of past contamination at military facilities, compliance with environmental laws and regulations that apply to current activities, cleanup at military bases being closed, pollution prevention, natural resource conservation, and environmental technology. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing defense nuclear waste generated from the past production of atomic materials used to construct nuclear weapons and for remediating contaminated sites. For FY1999, the Administration has requested a total of $10. 14 billion for DOD and DOE's defense-related environmental activities, which represents about 3.7% of the total request of $271.6 billion for national defense and is roughly 1.6% below the FY1998 funding level of $l0.30 billion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk Analysis: A Review of Public Policy Issues

Environmental Risk Analysis: A Review of Public Policy Issues

Date: July 15, 1998
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report describes and analyzes key issues and legislative options related to risk analysis and risk management at EPA and considers the potential impact of proposed legislative approaches on EPA's rule-making process and final regulations. The report describes the history of EPA's use of risk analysis and then summarizes and analyzes issues and legislative proposals for increasing such use. Legislative activities in the 105th Congress are described. A list of selected references and an appendix where key terms are defined conclude the report.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regional Haze: EPA's Proposal to Improve Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas

Regional Haze: EPA's Proposal to Improve Visibility in National Parks and Wilderness Areas

Date: July 9, 1998
Creator: McCarthy, James E; Blodgett, John E; Parker, Larry & Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department