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 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns

Environment and the World Trade Organization (WTO) at Seattle: Issues and Concerns

Date: December 21, 1999
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: This meeting of the decision making body of the WTO was expected to make decisions that would lead to another round of negotiations on a wide variety of trade rules and related issues. Although the United States continues to assert the necessity of pursuing the twin goals of free trade and environmental protection and to argue that these need not be in conflict, controversy remains over how the multilateral trading system should address the specifics of environmental issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Superfund Act Reauthorization: Liability Provisions of Leading Congressional Proposals

Superfund Act Reauthorization: Liability Provisions of Leading Congressional Proposals

Date: December 21, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Defense Cleanup and Environmental Programs: Authorization and Appropriations for FY2000

Date: December 13, 1999
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: Although Congress authorizes most federal programs for multiple years, it annually authorizes programs for national defense as well as appropriating funding for them each fiscal year. Of the activities traditionally authorized and funded, the Department of Defense (DOD) administers the following six environmental programs: environmental restoration, compliance, cleanup at base closure sites, pollution prevention, environmental technology, and natural resource conservation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Agency: FY2000 Budget Issues

Environmental Protection Agency: FY2000 Budget Issues

Date: October 22, 1999
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: State and local wastewater and drinking water capital needs were the most prominent budgetary issues. Senate and House authorizing and appropriating chairmen expressed concern over the requested 17% decrease in the State and Tribal Assistance Grants account from $3.41 billion in FY1999 to $2.84 billion in FY2000. The conference agreement on H.R. 2684 provides a total of $3.47 billion. For clean water state revolving funds, the conference committee approved the Senate's level of $1.35 billion, about $175 million more than the House approved and roughly $550 million more than requested. The conference agreement included $332 million for special project grants, about $73 million more than the House's proposal, roughly $232 million more than the Senate approved, and about $304 million more than requested. For drinking water state revolving funds, the conference committee approved $820 million, $45 million more than the House's amount and $5 million less than the Senate approved and the President requested. The conference committee also approved the Administration's request of $885 million for state and tribal administrative grants, which is roughly the same as the amount enacted for FY1999.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Highway Fund Sanctions and Conformity Under the Clean Air Act

Date: October 15, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Superfund Reauthorization: A Summary of H.R. 1300, as Reported

Superfund Reauthorization: A Summary of H.R. 1300, as Reported

Date: September 1, 1999
Creator: Reisch, Mark & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes

Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes

Date: July 29, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits

Global Climate Change Policy: Domestic Early Action Credits

Date: July 23, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses the global climate change policy and proposals to allow credit for early actions to reduce emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

The Role of Designation of Critical Habitat under the Endangered Species Act

Date: July 16, 1999
Creator: Baldwin, Pamela
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries

Global Climate Change: Coal Use in China and Other Asian Developing Countries

Date: June 16, 1999
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: Report discussing factors behind China's planned reliance on coal for future energy growth, including background information, factors in Asian coal use trends, Asian and world energy demands, the Asian coal and world markets, CO2 emissions trends, projected energy supply and emissions from other sources, and general conclusions regarding the issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Air Quality: EPA's Ozone Transport Rule, OTAG, and Section 216 Petitions - A Hazy Situation?

Date: June 15, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments provided the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the states with new tool to address the problem of interstate transport of air pollutants. This report discusses the actions undertaken as a direct result of this act, additional pollution reduction enforcement measures pursued by the EPA, and actions undertaken by states to reduce offending emissions not in compliance with these measures.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Accident Prevention under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Risk Management Planning by Propane Users and Internet Access to Worst-Case Accident Scenarios

Accident Prevention under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Risk Management Planning by Propane Users and Internet Access to Worst-Case Accident Scenarios

Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report briefly describes two issues associated with EPA implementation of risk management planning requirements in the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): whether dealers and distributors of propane and other flammable fuels should be covered by the law, and whether electronic access to off-site consequence analyses (OCA), and especially worst-case analyses, should be restricted to avoid misuse by terrorists or criminals. These issues are addressed by S. 880, as reported, and H.R. 1301 in the 106th Congress. The statutory requrrements and EPA implementation to date also are described. Covered facilities must submit risk management plans by June 21, 1999. This product will be updated when events warrant. For information on the status of legislation, see CRS Issue Brief lB10004, Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The D.C. Circuit Remands the Ozone and Particulate Matter Clean-Air Standards:

The D.C. Circuit Remands the Ozone and Particulate Matter Clean-Air Standards:

Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert & McCarthy, James E
Description: On May 14, 1999, in American Trucking Ass'ns v. EPA, a U.S. court of Appeals ruled that deficiencies in EPA's promulgation of new primary and secondary air quality standards required that they be remanded to the agency for further consideration. The decision is controversial, in part because the two-judge majority opinion relied principally on a long-moribund legal doctrine known as the nondelegation doctrine. The decision, if it survives appeal, will thus have implications for all delegations of congressional authority to agencies. In addition, its holding that the revised ozone ambient standard cannot be enforced has sparkled debate. By itself, however, the decision is unlikely to have major short-term effects on the ozone and particulate matter control programs
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Permitting: Status of Implementation

Clean Air Act Permitting: Status of Implementation

Date: May 14, 1999
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments established an operating permit system that is affecting many new and existing sources of air emissions, as well as state and local air pollution control agencies. After delays and early missteps, the operating permit program is moving ahead. All state and local programs have received interim or full approval, and permits are being issued, although at a slower rate than anticipated. However, a number of issues exist. These include the effect of key federal regulations, not yet promulgated, on permit programs and regulated sources; adequacy of state resources; gaining full approval for those permit programs that now have interim approval; and oversight.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment

The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment

Date: March 12, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Several times during the 1990s the Supreme Court struck down federal enactments as exceeding Congress' power under the Commerce Clause or Tenth Amendment. This report briefly reviews three of these decisions -- United States v. Lopez, New York v. United States, and Printz v. United States. Its focus, however, is how these cases have played out in subsequent lower-court challenges to federal environmental laws. The report shows that Supreme Court rulings in favor of these states notwithstanding, such laws have generally, though not always, been found within Commerce Clause and Tenth Amendment limits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: This Issue Brief discusses clean air issues that arose in the 105th Congress. CRS Issue Brief IB10004 addresses the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Right to a Clean Environment Provisions in State Constitutions, and Arguments as to a Federal Counterpart

Right to a Clean Environment Provisions in State Constitutions, and Arguments as to a Federal Counterpart

Date: February 23, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Issues

Leaking Underground Storage Tank Cleanup Issues

Date: February 17, 1999
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182

Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996: Overview of P.L. 104-182

Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY2000 Budget

Global Climate Change: The Energy Tax Incentives in the President's FY2000 Budget

Date: February 4, 1999
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Description: This report discusses the FY2000 budget, which includes several energy tax incentives intended to reduce greenhouse gasses linked to possible global warming.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol

Global Climate Change: Congressional Concern About "Back Door" Implementation of the 1997 U.N. Kyoto Protocol

Date: February 3, 1999
Creator: Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses legislation and issues relating to global climate change, some legislation and some FY1999 appropriations bills were used as vehicles for explicit congressional direction to the executive branch about possible "back door" implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Between 1993 and 1998 Congress considered many proposals that aimed to increase or improve the use of risk analysis by federal agencies, especially in developing environmental rules. This report describes differences and similarities among selected provisions of key proposals: Senate-passed Johnston amendments to S. 171 and S. 2019 in the 103rd Congress; S. 343, as reported by the Committee on the Judiciary, in the 104th Congress; House-passed H.R. 9 in the 104th Congress; S. 981, as reported by the Committee on Governmental Affairs, in the 105th Congress, and S. 1728, as introduced, in the 105th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand

Global Climate Change: Carbon Emissions and End-Use Energy Demand

Date: January 20, 1999
Creator: Rowberg, Richard E
Description: This report presents an analysis of the potential impacts of the Kyoto Protocol on U.S. energy demand. The analysis focuses on 27 common end-uses — light duty vehicles, residential space heating, industrial direct process heat, etc. — that describe the way energy is used in the United States
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th

Date: January 8, 1999
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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