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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act

Reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act

Date: April 12, 1982
Creator: Jolly, William C
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Dioxin: Environmental Impacts and Potential Human Health Effects

Dioxin: Environmental Impacts and Potential Human Health Effects

Date: October 21, 1983
Creator: Simpson, Michael M
Description: This issue brief presents a short background on the physical/chemical properties of dioxin, describes several existing sources of possible human exposure, and highlights what is currently known about its environmental impacts and human health effects. Congressional interest is intense at this time because of large numbers of Vietnam veterans' claims for benefits associated with use of herbicides in that war as well as because of certain incidents of potential significance to health involving disposal of wastes containing dioxin.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Summaries of Federal Environmental Laws Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency

Summaries of Federal Environmental Laws Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency

Date: March 1, 1984
Creator: Environmental Protection Section
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Acid Rain: Does it Contribute to Forest Decline?

Acid Rain: Does it Contribute to Forest Decline?

Date: January 24, 1985
Creator: Backiel, Adela
Description: This minibrief describes the major hypothesis explaining why acid rain may be contributing to forest decline, along with the major arguments against this hypothesis. For additional information on acid rain and current legislation for pollutant emissions controls, see IB83016 -- Acid Rain: Current Issues, and IB83005 -- Clean Air Act: An Overview.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Equity

Environmental Equity

Date: August 14, 1992
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: More than 20 years of Federal pollution control programs notwithstanding, growing perception that minority and low-income communities remain at disproportionately high risk of exposure to toxic pollutants is focusing attention on "environmental equity" issues. Federal legislation has been introduced to ensure equal protection of environmental quality and public health. Equity legislation is opposed by people who are skeptical of its long-term prospects and believe that there is insufficient evidence of discrimination and that some inequities are inevitable in a free-market economy. Both sides agree there is a need to collect and analyze data on public health and exposure to environmental hazards and to compare health risks among racial and socio-economic groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements

Deforestation: An Overview of Global Programs and Agreements

Date: October 21, 1992
Creator: Lyke, Julie & Fletcher, Susan R
Description: In recent years, global environmental concerns have figured prominently on the American political agenda. In particular, tropical deforestation and its implications for global climate change and biological diversity loss have prompted public outcry. Concerns have since grown to include other forest types as well. The Congress has considered a variety of legislation to stem the tide of increasing deforestation and the United States has supported a number of bilateral and multilateral initiatives to assist other countries in managing their forest resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

The Endangered Species Act and Private Property

Date: March 7, 1993
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: If the 103rd Congress embarks upon an effort to reauthorize the Endangered Species Act (ESA), it will run into an old acquaintance: the property rights issue. As now written, the ESA has at least the potential to curtail property rights (whatever its actual impact as implemented may be). This report explores the legal repercussions of those impacts, especially whether they constitute takings of property under the fifth amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: May 10, 1993
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Air Quality: Impacts of Trip Reduction Programs on States and Affected Employers

Date: August 18, 1993
Creator: Flechtner, Maura K & Mayer, Susan L
Description: This report discusses employer trip reduction (ETR) programs, which would require large employers to implement certain transportation control measures as part of a national effort to combat air pollution, largely as a direct result of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
A Directory of Some Interest Groups and Governmental Organizations Concerned With National Environmental Policies

A Directory of Some Interest Groups and Governmental Organizations Concerned With National Environmental Policies

Date: September 21, 1993
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report briefly describes selected associations that have demonstrated strong and continuous interest in environmental protection policies of the United States. It provides background information on some of the active participants in national policy discussions. The set of organizations abstracted for this report is not comprehensive; many groups necessarily have been omitted, often because they failed to respond to our request for information. An attempt was made to balance divergent political opinions and to include groups with different perspectives. All associations included in the report have nationwide membership, maintain an office in the vicinity of the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area, and actively seek to influence national (as opposed to international or regional) environmental policies. The financial information provided varies depending on what was available to CRS.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA

Trade and Environment: Treatment in Recent Agreements--GATT and NAFTA

Date: February 24, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R. & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report reviews some of the concerns surrounding the environment work program and other environmental issues. It briefly describes work underway in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and current thinking underlying development of U.S. positions on trade and the environment in the GATT.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility

International Financial Institutions and Environment: Multilateral Development Banks and the Global Environment Facility

Date: February 25, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R & Cody, Betsy A
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Market-Based Environmental Management: Issues in Implementation

Date: March 7, 1994
Creator: Moore, John L.; Blodgett, John E.; Copeland, Claudia; Gushee, David E.; Mayer, Susan L.; McCarthy, James E. et al.
Description: Increasingly, efforts to protect integral features of the natural environment that are essential to human well being face a double challenge. First, the magnitude of some conventional and emerging threats to environmental quality is growing, despite solid progress in controlling some causes. This is particularly the concern on a global scale in terms of atmospheric changes and loss of biological diversity. Second, easily-implemented uniform control methods using feasible technologies or other direct regulatory approaches are already in place for many pollution and resource management problems in the United States. Additional progress with so-called command and control policies can be expensive and disruptive, and thus counter productive to overall economic well being. This type of dilemma is common where environmental deterioration results from diffuse and complex causes inherent in technically-advanced high-consumption industrial societies such as the U.S. Solutions to these types of environmental problems are complicated by the diffuse benefits which obscures the net gains of additional controls that have concentrated and highly visible costs. Given this double bind, many policy analysts and academics have for years advocated more cost-effective and flexible approaches relying on market forces to further some environmental management objectives. Although market-based theory and practical environmental policy are ...
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
DOE Environmental Technology Department - A Fact Sheet

DOE Environmental Technology Department - A Fact Sheet

Date: March 11, 1994
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: The Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Technology Development in 1989 to develop faster and less expensive technical solutions to the Department's widespread environmental problems, primarily the legacy of decades of nuclear weapons production. Without new environmental technologies, DOE contends, some types of contamination may prove impossible to clean up. The Office of Technology Development, which is part of DOE's Environmental Management Program (EM), manages all stages of the development of new environmental restoration and waste management technologies, from basic research and development through final testing, demonstration and evaluation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Trade and Environment: GATT and NAFTA

Trade and Environment: GATT and NAFTA

Date: April 4, 1994
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: November 15, 1994
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress

Clean Water Issues in the 104th Congress

Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: For the 104th Congress, reauthorization of the Clean Water Act would seem likely to be a priority, since the Act was last amended in 1987 and authorizations expired on September 30, 1990. But legislative prospects in the 104th Congress are uncertain. Clean water also was a priority for the 103rd Congress, but, in 1994, Congress ran out of time and did not act on comprehensive amendments. Many of the issues proved to be too complex and controversial to be resolved easily, while Congress also was considering a large agenda of environmental and other bills. Controversies arose in connection with issues specific to the Clean Water Act and a trio of regulatory relief issues that became barriers to a number of bills in the 103rd Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Risk Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Regulations

Risk Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Regulations

Date: December 2, 1994
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: If general regulatory reform bills were enacted, debates on statute-specific reauthorizations could shift from regulatory reforms to the substantive regulatory requirements of each Act. In this case, regulatory reform could consist of proposals to modify statutory requirements to reduce costs to the private sector and State and local governments, to increase flexibility, and to reduce or compensate regulatory impacts on the value of private property. At issue would be a series of potential tradeoffs, for example among efficiency of environmental regulations, national consistency versus local flexibility, protection of private property rights, and degrees of health and environmental protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Brownfields Program: Cleaning Up Urban Industrial Sites

Brownfields Program: Cleaning Up Urban Industrial Sites

Date: April 3, 1995
Creator: Reisch, Mark
Description: The Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Initiative is a pilot project to return idle or underused industrial and commercial facilities back to productive use, in situations where redevelopment is complicated by potential environmental contamination. The program is flexible, allowing cities to use a variety of approaches in utilizing grants of up to $200,000 to develop abandoned and underused sites, neighborhoods, and small regional areas. States and Indian tribes are eligible as well as local governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources

Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report discusses protocols and treaties designed and implemented to protect Antarctica as a haven for environmental research, preservation, and conservation, as well as related legislation and Congressional efforts.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Implementing Acid Rain Legislation

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses the broad-ranging provisions in Title IV of The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549), which raise myriad implementation issues, particularly with respect to the system of tradable "allowances."
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

California Air Quality FIP - A Fact Sheet

Date: April 13, 1995
Creator: Mayer, Susan L
Description: On April 10, 1995, President Clinton signed P.L. 104-6, which contained a provision that rescinds the Federal air quality implementation plan (FIP) for the South Coast, Ventura, and Sacramento areas of California.(1) As a result, the FIP issued by EPA has no further force and effect, and California will continue pursuing approval of its own State implementation plan (SIP) in lieu of the FIP. Promulgation of the FIP was perceived by some within the State as having a detrimental effect on California's industries and economy resulting from costly and burdensome air pollution control measures contained in the plan.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate: Marine Mammal Issues

Date: May 12, 1995
Creator: Buck, Eugene H.
Description: After global warming became a concern in the mid-1950s, researchers proposed measuring deep ocean temperatures to reveal any significant trends in core ocean warming. Acoustic thermometry can detect changes in ocean temperature by receiving low-frequency sounds transmitted across an ocean basin because the speed of sound is proportional to water temperature. Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate, or ATOC, is an international program involving 11 institutions in seven nations. It is designed as a 30-month "proof-of-concept" project to provide data on possible global climate change, with funding provided by the U.S. Department of Defense. A debate has arisen over ATOC's impact on marine mammals versus the benefits of better global warming information derived from ATOC. This report dicusses the ATOC program and related concerns.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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