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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation

Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation

Date: February 6, 2003
Creator: Bearden, David M & Luther, Linda G
Description: This report describes the environmental documents required for highway projects, discusses the average amount of time to complete this documentation, summarizes the environmental streamlining provisions under TEA-21, and examines administrative and legislative actions taken to implement these requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation

Environmental Streamlining Provisions in the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century: Status of Implementation

Date: March 13, 2003
Creator: Bearden, David M & Luther, Linda G
Description: This report describes the environmental documents required for highway projects, discusses the average amount of time to complete this documentation, summarizes the environmental streamlining provisions under TEA-21, and examines administrative and legislative actions taken to implement these requirements.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense

Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Whether broader expansions from federal environmental laws are needed to preserve military readiness has been an issue. Questions have been raised as to whether environmental requirements have limited military training activities to the point that readiness would be compromised. The potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality have raised additional questions. Although certain exemptions the Department of Defense (DOD) first requested in FY2003 have been enacted into law, Congress has opposed others. From FY2003 to FY2008, DOD requested exemptions from the Clean Air Act, Solid Waste Disposal Act, and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. To date, Congress has not enacted these three latter exceptions. The Administration's FY2009 defense authorization bill does not include these exemptions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: July 11, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness. There has also been disagreement over the potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality. This report outlines this issue and relevant legislation in detail.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: May 19, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Several environmental statutes contain national security exemptions, which the Department of Defense (DOD) can obtain on a case-by-case basis. Since FY2003, DOD has sought broader exemptions that it argues are needed to preserve training capabilities and ensure military readiness. There has been disagreement in Congress over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness. There also has been disagreement over the potential impacts of broader exemptions on environmental quality.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: An Overview of Congressional Action

Date: January 9, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report discusses the difficulty of assessing the impact of environmental requirements on military readiness, broader exemptions for military activities that Congress has enacted, and DOD's request for additional exemptions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress

Exemptions from Environmental Law for the Department of Defense: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: January 3, 2007
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: Over time, Congress has included exemptions in several environmental statutes to ensure that requirements of those statutes would not restrict military training needs to the extent that national security would be compromised. This report discusses these exemptions and congressional disagreement over the need for broader exemptions in the absence of data on the overall impact of environmental requirements on training and readiness.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Cleanup of Contaminated Properties for Civilian Reuse

Military Base Closures: Cleanup of Contaminated Properties for Civilian Reuse

Date: November 19, 2008
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: In 2005, the 109th Congress approved a new Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) round. As the Department of Defense (DOD) implements the new round, issues for Congress include the pace and costs of closing and realigning the selected installations and the impacts on surrounding communities. The disposal of surplus property has stimulated interest among affected communities in how the land can be redeveloped to replace jobs lost as a result of the planned closures. Environmental contamination can limit the potential for economic redevelopment if the availability of funding or technological capabilities constrains the degree of cleanup needed to make the land suitable for its intended use.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup

Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup

Date: November 15, 2005
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report provides an overview of cleanup requirements for the transfer and reuse of base closure properties, discusses the status of property transfer on bases closed under prior rounds, examines costs to clean up bases closed under these prior rounds, and discusses cleanup costs and issues for the 2005 round.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup

Military Base Closures: Role and Costs of Environmental Cleanup

Date: October 3, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report explains cleanup requirements for the transfer and reuse of properties on closed bases, discusses property transfer status and cleanup costs on bases closed in prior rounds, and examines estimates of costs to clean up bases to be closed in the 2005 round to make these properties safe for civilian reuse.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

National Environmental Education Act of 1990: Overview, Implementation, and Reauthorization Issues

Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Bearden, David M.
Description: This report presents an overview of the National Environmental Education Act of 1990, discusses appropriations, examines the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) implementation of the act, and analyzes reauthorization issues relevant to legislation introduced in recent Congresses.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Laws: Summaries of Major Statutes Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency

Environmental Laws: Summaries of Major Statutes Administered by the Environmental Protection Agency

Date: October 8, 2010
Creator: Bearden, David M.; Copeland, Claudia; Luther, Linda; McCarthy, James E.; Schierow, Linda-Jo & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report summarizes several federal statutes providing legal authority for the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) programs and activities. These include: the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Ocean Dumping Act, the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the Solid Waste Disposal Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Pollution Prevention Act (PPA), the Emergency Planning Act, and the Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues

Biotechnology in Animal Agriculture: Status and Current Issues

Date: February 11, 2009
Creator: Becker, Geoffrey S. & Cowan, Tadlock
Description: This report describes several scientifically emerging animal biotechnologies that are raising a variety of questions concerning risks to humans, animals, and the environment, as well as ethical concerns. The report examines applications of the technologies and discusses major issues that may arise.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: A recurring issue in environmental policy is the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and government. To inform policymakers about these costs, a number of surveys and analyses have been conducted over the years. consistent, basic sources have been an annual survey of costs to manufacturers, conducted by the Bureau of Census(BOC), and an annual analysis of total costs, prepared by the Bureau of Economic Analysis(BEA). Overall, the BEA analysis showed the nation spent $122 billion for pollution abatement and control in 1994, or about 1.76% of Gross Domestic Product. Personal consumption expenditures for pollution control were $22 billion, government 435 billion, and business $65 billion. These 1994 data represent the end of the annual series; the BOC survey and BEA analysis have been discontinued
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: New Approaches

Environmental Protection: New Approaches

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: This report summarizes briefly a number of "new approaches," grouped under the following categories: Information: Approaches to improve the quantity and quality of information to enhance the knowledge base underlying environ- mental decisions (e.g., risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis).Public Sector Processes: Approaches to restructure governmental processes for making environmental decisions (e.g., devolution). Incentives: Approaches that emphasize incentives as opposed to regulatory or financial penalties for achieving environmental ends. Approaches that rely on markets and common law for environmental decisions to the extent possible. Approaches to inculcate environmental values in public or private managerial decisions (e.g., sustainability).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 105th

Date: February 10, 1998
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th

Date: January 8, 1999
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments

Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: Recent Developments

Date: December 19, 1994
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: If general regulatory reform bills were enacted, debates on statute-specific reauthorizations could shift from regulatory reforms to the substantive regulatory requirements of each Act. In this case, regulatory reform could consist of proposals to modify statutory requirements to reduce costs to the private sector and State and local governments, to increase flexibility, and to reduce or compensate regulatory impacts on the value of private property. At issue would be a series of potential tradeoffs, for example among efficiency of environmental regulations, national consistency versus local flexibility, protection of private property rights, and degrees of health and environmental protection.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Date: August 15, 2003
Creator: Blodgett, John E & Parker, Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Description: This report discusses a recurring issue in environmental policy: the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and governments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Date: March 12, 2002
Creator: Blodgett, John E. & Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses greenhouse gas emissions and baselines in the U.S. and various aspects of future projections.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Global Climate Change: U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions - Status, Trends, and Projections

Date: August 15, 2003
Creator: Blodgett, John E. & Parker, Larry
Description: This report reviews U.S. emissions of greenhouse gases in the contexts both of domestic policy and of international obligations and proposals. On October 15, 1992, the United States ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), which entered into force on March 21, 1994. This committed the United States to “national policies” to limit “its anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases,” with a voluntary goal of returning “emissions of carbon dioxide [CO2] and other greenhouse gases [methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)]” at the “end of the decade” to “their 1990 levels.”
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Date: July 6, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: This report assesses the variables involved in determining whether or not biopower (i.e., electricity generated from biomass) is a carbon-neutral alternative to fossil fuels as a way to help meet meet U.S. energy demands and reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It includes information about the biomass carbon cycle, GHG accounting for biopower production, recent developments affecting the assessment, and overview of whether or not it can be considered carbon neutral, and legislative implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?

Date: January 25, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: This report assesses the variables involved in determining whether or not biopower (i.e., electricity generated from biomass) is a carbon-neutral alternative to fossil fuels as a way to help meet meet U.S. energy demands and reduce U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It includes information about the biomass carbon cycle, GHG accounting for biopower production, recent developments affecting the assessment, and overview of whether or not it can be considered carbon neutral, and legislative implications.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department