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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes

Preemption Language in Federal Environmental Statutes

Date: July 29, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations

Noise Abatement and Control: An Overview of Federal Standards and Regulations

Date: April 7, 2000
Creator: Bearden, David M
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment

The Commerce Clause as a Limit on Congressional Power to Protect the Environment

Date: March 12, 1999
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Several times during the 1990s the Supreme Court struck down federal enactments as exceeding Congress' power under the Commerce Clause or Tenth Amendment. This report briefly reviews three of these decisions -- United States v. Lopez, New York v. United States, and Printz v. United States. Its focus, however, is how these cases have played out in subsequent lower-court challenges to federal environmental laws. The report shows that Supreme Court rulings in favor of these states notwithstanding, such laws have generally, though not always, been found within Commerce Clause and Tenth Amendment limits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Constitutional Constraints on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment

Constitutional Constraints on Congress' Ability to Protect the Environment

Date: September 8, 2000
Creator: Meltz, Robert
Description: Federal protection of the environment must hew to the same constitutional strictures as any other federal actions. In the past decade, however, the Supreme Court has invigorated several of these strictures in ways that present new challenges to congressional drafters of environmental statutes. This report reviews six of these newly emergent constitutional areas, with special attention to their significance for current and future environmental legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection: New Approaches

Environmental Protection: New Approaches

Date: December 11, 2000
Creator: Blodgett, John E
Description: This report summarizes briefly a number of "new approaches," grouped under the following categories: Information: Approaches to improve the quantity and quality of information to enhance the knowledge base underlying environ- mental decisions (e.g., risk assessment, cost-benefit analysis).Public Sector Processes: Approaches to restructure governmental processes for making environmental decisions (e.g., devolution). Incentives: Approaches that emphasize incentives as opposed to regulatory or financial penalties for achieving environmental ends. Approaches that rely on markets and common law for environmental decisions to the extent possible. Approaches to inculcate environmental values in public or private managerial decisions (e.g., sustainability).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA) (H.R. 701) and a Related Initiative in the 106th Congress

Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA) (H.R. 701) and a Related Initiative in the 106th Congress

Date: January 17, 2001
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A & Corn, M. Lynne
Description: This report compares existing law with H.R. 701, as passed by the House(HP) and H.R. 701, as reported by the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee (SCR). Both versions, also known as the Conservation and Reinvestment Act (CARA), would have created a new fund, the CARA Fund. Both bills would have created and funded a new coastal energy impact assistance program, amended and funded the Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF), funded the Urban Park and Recreation Recovery Program and the Historic Preservation Fund, increased funding for wildlife conservation, funded land restoration and easement programs, and funded the Payment in Lieu of Taxes (PILT) Program.1 The SCR version would also have funded additional programs to protect natural and cultural resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Between 1993 and 1998 Congress considered many proposals that aimed to increase or improve the use of risk analysis by federal agencies, especially in developing environmental rules. This report describes differences and similarities among selected provisions of key proposals: Senate-passed Johnston amendments to S. 171 and S. 2019 in the 103rd Congress; S. 343, as reported by the Committee on the Judiciary, in the 104th Congress; House-passed H.R. 9 in the 104th Congress; S. 981, as reported by the Committee on Governmental Affairs, in the 105th Congress, and S. 1728, as introduced, in the 105th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Accident Prevention under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Risk Management Planning by Propane Users and Internet Access to Worst-Case Accident Scenarios

Accident Prevention under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Risk Management Planning by Propane Users and Internet Access to Worst-Case Accident Scenarios

Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report briefly describes two issues associated with EPA implementation of risk management planning requirements in the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): whether dealers and distributors of propane and other flammable fuels should be covered by the law, and whether electronic access to off-site consequence analyses (OCA), and especially worst-case analyses, should be restricted to avoid misuse by terrorists or criminals. These issues are addressed by S. 880, as reported, and H.R. 1301 in the 106th Congress. The statutory requrrements and EPA implementation to date also are described. Covered facilities must submit risk management plans by June 21, 1999. This product will be updated when events warrant. For information on the status of legislation, see CRS Issue Brief lB10004, Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: September 18, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: This Issue Brief discusses clean air issues that arose in the 105th Congress. CRS Issue Brief IB10004 addresses the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: September 4, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues

Clean Air Act Issues

Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: July 7, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: May 27, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: April 11, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: March 5, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: January 21, 2003
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: November 20, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: October 2, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: August 28, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: June 5, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

The Role of Risk Analysis and Risk Management in Environmental Protection

Date: March 12, 2002
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department