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 Resource Type: Report
 Decade: 1990-1999
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Environmental Equity

Environmental Equity

Date: August 14, 1992
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: More than 20 years of Federal pollution control programs notwithstanding, growing perception that minority and low-income communities remain at disproportionately high risk of exposure to toxic pollutants is focusing attention on "environmental equity" issues. Federal legislation has been introduced to ensure equal protection of environmental quality and public health. Equity legislation is opposed by people who are skeptical of its long-term prospects and believe that there is insufficient evidence of discrimination and that some inequities are inevitable in a free-market economy. Both sides agree there is a need to collect and analyze data on public health and exposure to environmental hazards and to compare health risks among racial and socio-economic groups.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Voluntary Programs to Reduce Pollution

Voluntary Programs to Reduce Pollution

Date: July 13, 1995
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Issues: From the 104th to the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Issues: From the 104th to the 105th Congress

Date: January 7, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The continued interest in regulatory reform measures in the final moments of the 104th Congress suggests that the 105th Congress will consider them again. At the same time the fact that the 104th Congress enacted flexibility provisions in drinking water and food safety/pesticides legislation could be an indicator that the 105th Congress may pursue reforms in individual reauthorization legislation rather than in broad regulatory reform bills.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk Analysis: A Review of Public Policy Issues

Environmental Risk Analysis: A Review of Public Policy Issues

Date: July 15, 1998
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report describes and analyzes key issues and legislative options related to risk analysis and risk management at EPA and considers the potential impact of proposed legislative approaches on EPA's rule-making process and final regulations. The report describes the history of EPA's use of risk analysis and then summarizes and analyzes issues and legislative proposals for increasing such use. Legislative activities in the 105th Congress are described. A list of selected references and an appendix where key terms are defined conclude the report.
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Accident Prevention under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Risk Management Planning by Propane Users and Internet Access to Worst-Case Accident Scenarios

Accident Prevention under the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Risk Management Planning by Propane Users and Internet Access to Worst-Case Accident Scenarios

Date: June 10, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: This report briefly describes two issues associated with EPA implementation of risk management planning requirements in the Clean Air Act Section 112(r): whether dealers and distributors of propane and other flammable fuels should be covered by the law, and whether electronic access to off-site consequence analyses (OCA), and especially worst-case analyses, should be restricted to avoid misuse by terrorists or criminals. These issues are addressed by S. 880, as reported, and H.R. 1301 in the 106th Congress. The statutory requrrements and EPA implementation to date also are described. Covered facilities must submit risk management plans by June 21, 1999. This product will be updated when events warrant. For information on the status of legislation, see CRS Issue Brief lB10004, Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress.
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY2000 Budget Issues

Environmental Protection Agency: FY2000 Budget Issues

Date: October 22, 1999
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: State and local wastewater and drinking water capital needs were the most prominent budgetary issues. Senate and House authorizing and appropriating chairmen expressed concern over the requested 17% decrease in the State and Tribal Assistance Grants account from $3.41 billion in FY1999 to $2.84 billion in FY2000. The conference agreement on H.R. 2684 provides a total of $3.47 billion. For clean water state revolving funds, the conference committee approved the Senate's level of $1.35 billion, about $175 million more than the House approved and roughly $550 million more than requested. The conference agreement included $332 million for special project grants, about $73 million more than the House's proposal, roughly $232 million more than the Senate approved, and about $304 million more than requested. For drinking water state revolving funds, the conference committee approved $820 million, $45 million more than the House's amount and $5 million less than the Senate approved and the President requested. The conference committee also approved the Administration's request of $885 million for state and tribal administrative grants, which is roughly the same as the amount enacted for FY1999.
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Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: May 10, 1993
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: None
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Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Clean Water Act Reauthorization in the 105th Congress

Date: October 29, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 105th Congress, legislation to reauthorize the Clean Water Act was not been introduced, and no major House or Senate committee activity occurred. EPA and states' water quality inventories have identified wet weather flows (including agricultural runoff, urban storm water, and sewer overflows) as the largest remaining threat to water quality. EPA's clean water programs are now focusing to a large extent on solving wet weather pollution problems. These issues may be addressed legislatively, as well. At issue is whether and how to detail wet weather programs in the Act versus allowing flexibility that recognizes the site-specific nature of intermittent wet weather pollution.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Clean Air Act Issues in the 105th Congress

Date: March 3, 1999
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: This Issue Brief discusses clean air issues that arose in the 105th Congress. CRS Issue Brief IB10004 addresses the 106th Congress.
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Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: September 18, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Environmental Protection Legislation in the 105th Congress

Date: November 9, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: The 105th Congress enacted tax provisions relating to Superfund brownfields sites, transportation- and defense-related environmental provisions, a border smog bill, EPA funding as well as reinstating the tax that supports the Leaking Underground Storage Trust Fund. There were various actions on regulatory reform, the budget resolution, appropriations, highway- and defense-related environmental provisions, Superfund reform bills and underground storage tanks. It is too early to tell if these will be issues for the 106th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Environmental Risk and Cost-Benefit Analysis: A Review of Proposed Legislative Mandates, 1993-1998

Date: January 22, 1999
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: Between 1993 and 1998 Congress considered many proposals that aimed to increase or improve the use of risk analysis by federal agencies, especially in developing environmental rules. This report describes differences and similarities among selected provisions of key proposals: Senate-passed Johnston amendments to S. 171 and S. 2019 in the 103rd Congress; S. 343, as reported by the Committee on the Judiciary, in the 104th Congress; House-passed H.R. 9 in the 104th Congress; S. 981, as reported by the Committee on Governmental Affairs, in the 105th Congress, and S. 1728, as introduced, in the 105th Congress.
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Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
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Risk Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Regulations

Risk Analysis and Cost-Benefit Analysis of Environmental Regulations

Date: December 2, 1994
Creator: Schierow, Linda-Jo
Description: None
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International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties

International Environment: Current Major Global Treaties

Date: November 5, 1996
Creator: Fletcher, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Clean Air Act Issues

Clean Air Act Issues

Date: December 2, 1996
Creator: McCarthy, James E
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Agency: An Analysis of Key FY1999 Budget Issues

Environmental Protection Agency: An Analysis of Key FY1999 Budget Issues

Date: December 4, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: On February 2, 1998, the President requested $7.8 billion for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in FY1999. The Senate Appropriations Committee reported S. 2168 (S.Rept. 105-216) on June 12; the full Senate passed the bill on July 17. The House Committee reported H.R. 4194 (H.Rept. 105-610) on July 8, 1998; the full House passed it on July 29; and the Senate passed it on July 30 after incorporating S. 2168's provisions. During the week of October 6, the House and Senate approved the conference report, H.Rept. 105-769, which includes $7.5 billion, thus clearing the bill for the President's signature of October 21 (P.L. 105-276). The Omnibus Appropriations Act (P.L. 105-277) added $30 million more in FY1999 funds.
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Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Date: October 14, 1997
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: EPA appropriations are included in the annual VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill. Two major issues were whether Superfund cleanups should be accelerated in the absence of statutory reforms and whether the requested state assistance funds are adequate. Because the House and Senate were in agreement on not granting the requested 50% increase in Superfund and in passing increased state funds, the chief conference issue was expected to focus on the roughly $225 million difference between the House and Senate versions. However, a veto threat over Superfund program funding made this a key conference issue.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Environmental Protection Agency: FY1998 Budget

Date: January 12, 1998
Creator: Lee, Martin R
Description: EPA appropriations are included in the annual VA-HUD-Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill. Two major issues were whether Superfund cleanups should be accelerated in the absence of statutory reforms and whether the requested state assistance funds are adequate. Because the House and Senate were in agreement on not granting the requested 50% increase in Superfund and in passing increased state funds, the chief conference issue focused on the roughly $225 million difference between the House and Senate versions.
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Polar Research: U.S. Policy and Interests

Polar Research: U.S. Policy and Interests

Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Mielke, James E
Description: None
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Global Climate Change

Global Climate Change

Date: December 4, 1996
Creator: Justus, John R & Morrissey, Wayne A
Description: This report discusses the effect of human activities on global climate change. Human activities, particularly burning of fossil fuels, have increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and other trace gases, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and nitrous oxide.
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Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Environmental Protection: How Much it Costs and Who Pays

Date: April 16, 1997
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Description: This report discusses a recurring issue in environmental policy: the cost of pollution control imposed on individuals, businesses, and governments.
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Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources

Antarctica: Environmental Protection, Research, and Conservation of Resources

Date: April 5, 1995
Creator: Mielke, James E & Browne, Marjorie Ann
Description: This report discusses protocols and treaties designed and implemented to protect Antarctica as a haven for environmental research, preservation, and conservation, as well as related legislation and Congressional efforts.
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MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues

Date: March 24, 1998
Creator: McCarthy, James E & Tiemann, Mary
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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