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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Sissine, Fred & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report focuses on electricity efficiency in buildings. It also discusses improved energy efficiency in transportation (to and from buildings), reducing direct use of fossil fuels in buildings, and reducing energy use or carbon emissions associated with building materials and construction (e.g., steel and concrete).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Sissine, Fred & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: Federal policymakers are debating a range of potential initiatives for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from U.S. energy sources. An overarching policy issue which arises from carbon control proposals is how the CO2 reduction targets could be achieved. One method that has garnered significant attention is increasing the electricity efficiency in buildings. Analysts have identified a number of critical socioeconomic and policy barriers which have historically limited the impact of federal and state building efficiency programs. This report describes those barriers, the degree to which federal law has addressed them, and their implications for meeting future U.S. carbon reduction targets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions

Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions

Date: January 7, 1999
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions

Electric Utility Restructuring: Overview of Basic Policy Questions

Date: January 28, 1997
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: Proposals to increase competition in the electric utility industry involve segmenting electric functions (generation, transmission, distribution) that are currently integrated (or bundled) in most cases (both in terms of corporate and rate structures). This report identifies five basic issues this effort raises for the Congress to consider as the debate on restructuring proceeds.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of S.1401, H.R. 655, H.R. 1230, S. 722, H.R. 1960, and S. 2287

Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of S.1401, H.R. 655, H.R. 1230, S. 722, H.R. 1960, and S. 2287

Date: July 16, 1998
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: Once considered the nation's most regulated industry, the electric utility industry is evolving into a more competitive environment. At the current time, the focus of this development is the generating sector, where the advent of new generating technologies, such as gas-fired combined cycle, has lowered both entry barriers to competitors of traditional utilities and lowered the marginal costs of those competitors below those of some traditional utilities. This technological advance has been combined with legislative initiatives, such as the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), to encourage the introduction of competitive forces into the electric generating sector. The questions now are whether further legislative action is desirable to encourage competition in the electric utility sector and how the transition between a comprehensive regulatory regime to a more competitive electric utility sector can be made with the least amount of economic and service disruption.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Fossil Energy Research and Development: Whither Coal?

Fossil Energy Research and Development: Whither Coal?

Date: November 20, 1996
Creator: Parker, Larry
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of Comprehensive Bills

Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of Comprehensive Bills

Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: Parker, Larry & Abel, Amy
Description: Once considered the nation's most regulated industry, the electric utility industry is evolving into a more competitive environment. Currently, the focus of this development is the generating sector, where the advent of new generating technologies has lowered both entry barriers to competitors of traditional utilities and the marginal costs of those competitors below those of some traditional utilities. This technological advance has combined with legislative initiatives, such as the Energy Policy Act (EPACT), to encourage the introduction of competitive forces into the electric generating sector.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations

Date: December 24, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John
Description: This report uses the data compiled by World Resources Institute (WRI) to examine a pivotal and long-running issue surrounding U.S. climate change policy: the appropriate roles of developed and developing countries in addressing climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Date: March 29, 2001
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Date: October 25, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls

Date: March 19, 2002
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. The report also addresses various legislative activity that focuses on multi-pollutant strategies as an alternative to these piecemeal initiatives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Electricity Restructuring: The Implications for Air Quality

Electricity Restructuring: The Implications for Air Quality

Date: January 4, 2001
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John E
Description: In the context of federal and state proposals to restructure the electric utility industry, this paper analyzes forces and policies affecting utility generation that may have consequences for emissions of air pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Key concerns are potential increases in nitrogen oxide emissions, raising questions about the effectiveness of the Clean Air Act to regulate a restructured industry, and in carbon dioxide emissions, which are not currently regulated but could be if the U.S. ratifies the Kyoto Agreement. These issues may be raised in the context of electricity restructuring legislation. For ongoing legislative activities, see CRS Issue Brief IB10006, Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors

Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors

Date: November 6, 2006
Creator: Parker, Larry & Holt, Mark
Description: This report includes analyses of the potential effect of the tax credit for nuclear power provided by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and possible competitive effects of various proposals to limit greenhouse gas emissions.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Unfolding of the Reagan Energy Program: The First Year

The Unfolding of the Reagan Energy Program: The First Year

Date: December 17, 1981
Creator: Parker, Larry; Bamberger, Robert L & Abbasi, Susan R
Description: None
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview

Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview

Date: November 10, 1982
Creator: Parker, Larry; Bamberger, Robert L & Behrens, Carl E
Description: During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The LIHEAP Formula

The LIHEAP Formula

Date: May 21, 2014
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses two types of formulas used to allocate funding to the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) through regular and contingency funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The LIHEAP Formula: Legislative History and Current Law

The LIHEAP Formula: Legislative History and Current Law

Date: July 6, 2010
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses two types of formulas used to allocate funding to the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). The two formulas are used in regards to two types of funding: regular and contingency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
LIHEAP: Program and Funding

LIHEAP: Program and Funding

Date: January 28, 2015
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses two types of formulas used to allocate funding to the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP) through regular and contingency funding.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Estimated Allocations

Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Estimated Allocations

Date: June 26, 2008
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP). This report contains two tables that show estimated LIHEAP allocations to the states. Table 1 shows state allocations at various levels: (1) the amount appropriated for FY2006, (2) the amount appropriated for FY2007, (3) the amount appropriated in FY2008, and (4) estimated state allocations based on the amount requested by the President for FY2009. Table 2 shows estimated state allocations at other hypothetical appropriations increments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding

The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding

Date: September 18, 2008
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report describes appropriations of Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP) funds for FY2008 and FY2007. It also discusses current issues and legislation related to LIHEAP. The report also discusses LIHEAP rules, including household eligibility and how funds may be used, and presents the most recent data available from HHS regarding household characteristics and benefit levels. Finally, the last section discusses how each category of LIHEAP funds is distributed to states, as well as a breakdown of funds to the states during the last several fiscal years.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding

The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding

Date: April 6, 2006
Creator: Perl, Libby
Description: This report discusses Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP) funds for FY2006 and FY2007. It also discusses current issues and legislation related to LIHEAP.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Derivatives, Risk Management, and Policy in the Energy Markets

Derivatives, Risk Management, and Policy in the Energy Markets

Date: December 11, 2006
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report provides a systematic guide to understanding the use of financial derivative contracts in the energy industry, focusing specifically on the petroleum and natural gas sectors.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: Periods of rising oil prices can result in reduced economic growth, rising prices, and reduced disposable incomes for consumers, as well as a deteriorating trade balance. For the oil industry, periods of high oil prices generally imply increasing cash flows and higher profits. Although the U.S. oil industry is composed of many firms, to many the face of the oil industry is represented by the five major firms operating extensively in the U.S. market. These firms are ExxonMobil, Chevron, BP plc, Royal Dutch Shell plc, and ConocoPhillips. During the period 2007 to 2011, the five major companies' upstream activities of exploration and production contributed more to the total profitability of the firms than the downstream activities of refining and marketing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

Date: November 8, 2004
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report provides and analyzes basic information concerning the gas to liquids industry (GTL) industry to inform debate on broad energy legislation, as well as more specific natural gas legislation on supply issues including an Alaskan natural gas pipeline as well as LNG facility development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department