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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?

Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?

Date: July 9, 2008
Creator: Lane, Nic
Description: This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

Date: September 20, 2007
Creator: Lane, Nic
Description: This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill

Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill

Date: August 27, 2007
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: This report introduces some of the issues that are influencing the development of a conservation title. It then reviews the contents of the House-passed bill, H.R. 2419. Some alternative proposals that the House considered are summarized in an appendix. The House-passed bill includes some elements of the alternative proposals (usually in modified form). This report is limited to the conservation title. However, conservation topics in recent farm bills have been increasingly addressed in other titles, and that trend continues with the House-passed version, which contains conservation provisions in the energy, forestry, and research titles, and others as well.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

Date: November 8, 2004
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report provides and analyzes basic information concerning the gas to liquids industry (GTL) industry to inform debate on broad energy legislation, as well as more specific natural gas legislation on supply issues including an Alaskan natural gas pipeline as well as LNG facility development.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards

Date: November 4, 2004
Creator: Bamberger, Robert
Description: This report discusses energy legislation pertaining to fuel standards. The current corporate average fuel economy standard (CAFE) is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for passenger automobiles and 20.7 mpg for light trucks (scheduled to increase to 22.2 mpg in model year [MY] 2007), a classification that also includes sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Congress had included language in the FY1996-FY2001 Transportation Appropriations prohibiting the use of appropriated funds for any rulemaking on CAFE, effectively freezing the standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management's Five-Year Program for Offshore Oil and Gas Leasing: History and Proposed Program for 2017-2022

The Bureau of Ocean Energy Management's Five-Year Program for Offshore Oil and Gas Leasing: History and Proposed Program for 2017-2022

Date: May 23, 2016
Creator: Comay, Laura B.; Humphries, Marc & Vann, Adam
Description: The first two sections of this report discuss the history and legal framework for Bureau of Ocean Energy Management's (BOEM) five-year offshore oil and gas leasing programs. Subsequent sections outline BOEM's development process, briefly summarize previous years' programs, and analyze the proposal for 2017-2022. The final section of the report discusses the role of Congress, with a focus on congressional oversight and legislation related to the 2017-2022 program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
China's Natural Gas: Uncertainty for Markets

China's Natural Gas: Uncertainty for Markets

Date: May 2, 2016
Creator: Ratner, Michael; Nelson, Gabriel M. & Lawrence, Susan V.
Description: This report discusses China's natural gas plans. Despite China's pollution problems and international environmental commitments, the role of natural gas in China's energy mix remains relatively low, particularly compared to the United States; however, China has announced big plans for its natural gas development and use. These changes will require significant investment in exploration, production, infrastructure, and consumption.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Markets in Transition: Implications for U.S. Supply and Price

Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Markets in Transition: Implications for U.S. Supply and Price

Date: January 17, 2007
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report analyzes the potential for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to become a flexible, dependable, source of natural gas supply for the U.S. market, while also setting a cap on natural gas prices.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: High levels of oil imports and high crude oil and gasoline prices in recent years have led to increased interest in the U.S. fuel supply. Recent congressional interest has focused on alternatives to petroleum, ways to improve the efficiency of the U.S. transportation sector, and ways to improve the stability and security of the petroleum supply and refining sectors. Key components of federal policies to reduce petroleum consumption include the promotion of alternatives to petroleum fuels and the promotion of more efficient vehicles. This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: April 4, 2013
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Power Plants: Characteristics and Costs

Power Plants: Characteristics and Costs

Date: November 13, 2008
Creator: Kaplan, Stan
Description: This report analyzes the factors that determine the cost of electricity from new power plants. These factors — including construction costs, fuel expense, environmental regulations, and financing costs — can all be affected by government energy, environmental, and economic policies. The report provides projections of the possible cost of power from new fossil, nuclear, and renewable plants built in 2015, illustrating how different assumptions, such as for the availability of federal incentives, change the cost rankings of the technologies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Description: This report provides an overview of aggregate energy consumption, and presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, coal and renewable energy. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wind Power in the United States: Technology, Economic, and Policy Issues

Wind Power in the United States: Technology, Economic, and Policy Issues

Date: June 20, 2008
Creator: Logan, Jeffrey & Kaplan, Stan Mark
Description: This report describes utility-scale wind power issues in the United States. The report is divided into the following sections: background on wind energy; wind resources and technology; industry composition and trends; wind power economics; and policy issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: July 21, 2009
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: January 4, 2010
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations

Energy and Water Development: FY2011 Appropriations

Date: February 25, 2011
Creator: Behrens, Carl E.
Description: This report discusses key budgetary issues for FY2011 involving the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill, which provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation, the Department of Energy, and a number of independent agencies.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative

Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: Fuel ethanol consumption has grown significantly in the past several years. Most of the U.S. market is supplied by domestic refiners producing ethanol from American corn. However, imports do play a role, albeit small, in the U.S. market. One reason for the relatively small role is a 54-cent-per-gallon tariff on imported ethanol. This tariff offsets an economic incentive of 51 cents per gallon for the use of ethanol in gasoline. However, to promote development and stability in the Caribbean region and Central America, the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) allows the imports of most products, including ethanol, duty-free.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Financial Performance of the Major Oil Companies, 2007-2011

Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: Periods of rising oil prices can result in reduced economic growth, rising prices, and reduced disposable incomes for consumers, as well as a deteriorating trade balance. For the oil industry, periods of high oil prices generally imply increasing cash flows and higher profits. Although the U.S. oil industry is composed of many firms, to many the face of the oil industry is represented by the five major firms operating extensively in the U.S. market. These firms are ExxonMobil, Chevron, BP plc, Royal Dutch Shell plc, and ConocoPhillips. During the period 2007 to 2011, the five major companies' upstream activities of exploration and production contributed more to the total profitability of the firms than the downstream activities of refining and marketing.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues

Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues

Date: July 12, 2012
Creator: Tiemann, Mary & Vann, Adam
Description: This report reviews past and proposed treatment of hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Water Drinking Act, the principal federal statute for regulating the underground injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews current provisions for regulating underground injection activities, and discusses some possible implications of, and issues associated with, enactment of legislation authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate hydraulic fracturing under this statute.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Some policymakers have concluded that the energy challenges facing the United States are so critical that a concentrated investment in energy research and development (R&D) should be undertaken. The Manhattan project, which produced the atomic bomb, and the Apollo program, which landed American men on the moon, have been cited as examples of the success such R&D investments can yield. Investment in federal energy technology R&D programs of the 1970s, in response to two energy crises, have generally been viewed as less successful than the earlier two efforts. This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, the three initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: April 25, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: March 11, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 109th Congress

Date: September 13, 2005
Creator: Corn, M. Lynne; Gelb, Bernard A & Baldwin, Pamela
Description: This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. This report addresses several legislative options on the issue, as well as policymakers' arguments for and against development, especially in the wake of increasing terrorism since 2000-2001.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department