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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Energy Costs and Agriculture
U.S. agriculture is not an especially energy-intensive industry, but energy does account for about 6% of farm production costs. Additionally, farming is a highly mechanized industry and requires timely energy supplies at particular stages of the production cycle in order to achieve optimum yields. A substantial part of energy use by agriculture is indirect —embodied in the chemicals applied and machinery used on farms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1674/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Most action in the second session is focused on the FY2009 budget request and legislation that would extend or modify selected renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94091/
Energy: Selected Facts and Numbers
This report discusses the energy policy that has been a recurring issue for Congress since the first major crisis in the 1970s. The report offers a general view of energy consumption trends, Table 1 shows consumption by economic sector — residential, commercial, transportation, and industry — from 1950 to the present. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93966/
Agriculture-Based Renewable Energy Production
Since the late 1970s, U.S. policy makers at both the federal and state levels have enacted a variety of incentives, regulations, and programs to encourage the production and use of agriculture-based renewable energy. Motivations cited for these legislative initiatives include energy security concerns, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and raising domestic demand for U.S.-produced farm products. This report provides background information on farm-based energy production and how this fits into the national energy-use picture. It briefly reviews the primary agriculture-based renewable energy types and issues of concern associated with their production, particularly their economic and energy efficiencies and long-run supply. Finally, this report examines the major legislation related to farm-based energy production and use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8685/
Biofuels Provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), H.R. 3221, and H.R. 6: A Side-by-Side Comparison
This report discusses the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and the key biofuels-related provisions of the final legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96788/
Clean Energy Standard: Design Elements, State Baseline Compliance and Policy Considerations
This report evaluates design elements of previous Clean Energy Standards (CES) proposals, summarizes the Administration’s CES policy framework, provides state-level baseline CES compliance analysis, and presents several policy options that Congress might consider as part of a CES debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99032/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress
The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of energy tax policy as it stands at the start of the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40134/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress
The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of energy tax policy as it stands at the start of the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83960/
Soft Versus Hard Energy Paths: An Analysis of the Debate
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Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
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Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation
The history of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress has been protracted. The House passed the conference version of H.R. 6 on November 18, 2003. On November 21, a cloture motion to limit debate in the Senate on the H.R. 6 conference report failed (57-40). Efforts to bring the bill back to the Senate floor early in the second session were unsuccessful. Some argued that any major changes to the legislation would not be viable because of the careful regional and political compromises that were reached to get a bill out of conference and through the House. The closest consensus was that the cost of the bill had to be reduced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10079/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 11, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247-175).Action on comprehensive energy legislation is in progress in the Senate. The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee began markup of a comprehensive energy bill on April 7, 2003, agreeing by week’s end to provisions regarding hydrogen, hydroelectric relicensing, nuclear and renewable energy. On April 11, 2003, Chairman Domenici pulled a controversial section on climate change from the bill and indicated it would be addressed later. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10031/
Energy Policy: Historical Overview, Conceptual Framework, and Continuing Issues
Energy policy issues of continuing interest include whether or not to open up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for leasing; settlement upon a pipeline route to allow production of Alaskan natural gas; access to public lands for energy exploration and development; restructuring of the electric utility industry to encourage competition and consumer choice; raising corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards for motor vehicles; seeking effective means to promote energy conservation using currently available technologies; and development of new technologies and alternative fuels. This report discusses those major policy approaches, provides a conceptual framework for categorizing energy policy proposals, and briefly describes issues that remain current in the debates over energy policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7840/
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
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Rising Energy Competition and Energy Security in Northeast Asia: Issues for U.S. Policy
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Energy Independence: Would It Free the United States From Oil Price Shocks?
Over the past 25-years, the U.S. economy has experienced four large oil price shocks (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, and 1999-2000). Each has been a catalyst for discussions about a proper national energy policy. Many analysts have suggested that energy independence should be an integral part of such a policy. Both major party candidates for president in the 2000 election expressed similar views. However, U.S. suppliers of energy participate in the world energy market. So long as prices are determined in that market, energy independence will not free the United States from oil price shocks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2683/
Energy Independence: Would It Free the United States From Oil Price Shocks?
Over the past 25-years, the U.S. economy has experienced four large oil price shocks (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, and 1999-2000). Each has been a catalyst for discussions about a proper national energy policy. Many analysts have suggested that energy independence should be an integral part of such a policy. Both major party candidates for president in the 2000 election expressed similar views. However, U.S. suppliers of energy participate in the world energy market. So long as prices are determined in that market, energy independence will not free the United States from oil price shocks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1183/
Methane Hydrates: Energy Prospect or Natural Hazard?
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Energy Policy Reform and Revitalization Act of 2007, Title VII of H.R. 3221: Summary and Discussion of Oil and Gas Provisions
This report discusses the energy development reform and energy production from public lands. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103211/
Regulation of Energy Derivatives
This report analyzes the development of regulation for energy derivatives (financial contracts whose value is linked to changes in the price of some energy product). Regulation may be needed [1] to help prevent abusive trading and price manipulation, and [2] to help prevent the failure of a large derivatives dealer which could trigger disruptions of supplies and prices in oil and gas markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98115/
The Market for Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report discusses the current market for biomass-based diesel (BBD) fuels and their corresponding RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) under the RFS. It examines the role that the RIN market may play as an economic incentive for the production of biodiesel and other BBD fuels in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103121/
Cellulosic Biofuels: Analysis of Policy Issues for Congress
Report that provides background on the current effort to develop industrial-scale, competitive technology to produce biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228086/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 112th Congress
Report discussing the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227642/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation
The history of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress has been protracted. The House passed the conference version of H.R. 6 on November 18, 2003. On November 21, a cloture motion to limit debate in the Senate on the H.R. 6 conference report failed (57-40). Efforts to bring the bill back to the Senate floor early in the second session were unsuccessful. Some argued that any major changes to the legislation would not be viable because of the careful regional and political compromises that were reached to get a bill out of conference and through the House. The closest consensus was that the cost of the bill had to be reduced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5873/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4477/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4476/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4475/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4469/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4468/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
Concern about national energy policy remains high amidst high prices for oil products and natural gas during the winter of 2003 and oil inventory levels that have been observed to be at historic lows. On February 28, 2003, Representative Joe Barton, chairman of the House Energy and Air Quality Subcommittee, released a draft omnibus energy bill that includes a number of issues debated, but left unresolved, in the 107th Congress. The Senate has indicated its intention to introduce omnibus energy legislation as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4467/
Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On July 31, 2003, the Senate, facing obstacles to passage of its comprehensive energy bill (S. 14), substituted the energy legislation the Senate had passed and sent to conference in the 107th Congress. Principals are sorting out the implications of this unanticipated development; there are identical or similar provisions in both S. 14 and the substitute measure that the Senate passed as H.R. 6, but there are also significant differences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4474/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On July 31, 2003, the Senate, facing obstacles to passage of its comprehensive energy bill (S. 14), substituted the energy legislation the Senate had passed and sent to conference in the 107th Congress. Principals are sorting out the implications of this unanticipated development; there are identical or similar provisions in both S. 14 and the substitute measure that the Senate passed as H.R. 6, but there are also significant differences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4473/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 11, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247-175).Action on comprehensive energy legislation is in progress in the Senate. The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee began markup of a comprehensive energy bill on April 7, 2003, agreeing by week’s end to provisions regarding hydrogen, hydroelectric relicensing, nuclear and renewable energy. On April 11, 2003, Chairman Domenici pulled a controversial section on climate change from the bill and indicated it would be addressed later. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4472/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 11, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247-175).Action on comprehensive energy legislation is in progress in the Senate. The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee began markup of a comprehensive energy bill on April 7, 2003, agreeing by week’s end to provisions regarding hydrogen, hydroelectric relicensing, nuclear and renewable energy. On April 11, 2003, Chairman Domenici pulled a controversial section on climate change from the bill and indicated it would be addressed later. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4471/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 10, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247- 175). The bill was a composite of four measures – H.R. 39, reported from the House Committee on Resources, H.R. 238, marked up by the House Science Committee, H.R. 1531, reported from Ways and Means, and an unnumbered bill reported out of the Energy and Commerce Committee. Unlike comprehensive energy legislation (H.R. 4) debated in the 107th Congress, H.R. 6 includes a section on electricity which has stirred some controversy. H.R. 6 would provide authorization for exploration and development of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4470/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation
This report discusses the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271997/
Renewable Energy Programs and the Farm Bill: Status and Issues
This report focuses on those policies contained in the 2008 farm bill (the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008; P.L. 110-246) that support agriculture-based renewable energy, especially biofuels. The introductory sections briefly describe how these policies evolved and how they fit into the larger context of U.S. biofuels policy. Then, the policies specific to the 2008 farm bill are defined in terms of their function, goals, administration, funding, and implementation status. Finally, a section reviews the major emerging issues related to U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) energy programs, particularly as related to their possible inclusion in the next farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83982/