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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nuclear Energy Policy
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Energy Costs and Agriculture
U.S. agriculture is not an especially energy-intensive industry, but energy does account for about 6% of farm production costs. Additionally, farming is a highly mechanized industry and requires timely energy supplies at particular stages of the production cycle in order to achieve optimum yields. A substantial part of energy use by agriculture is indirect —embodied in the chemicals applied and machinery used on farms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1674/
Nuclear Energy Policy
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Energy Policy: Conceptual Framework and Continuing Issues
In the spring of 2006, crude oil prices were exceeding $70/barrel (bbl) in response to tight markets and uncertainty over the security of world oil supply. A number of developments have placed additional pressure on world markets, including Hurricanes Katrina and Rita (in late August and late September 2005), the phaseout of the gasoline additive methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and a renewable fuels mandate, and a continuing high and worldwide demand for oil. Energy policy issues for continuing interest include opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for leasing; Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards (CAFE) for passenger vehicles; improving U.S. energy infrastructure, including pipelines and refineries; seeking effective means to promote energy conservation using currently available technologies, and developing new technologies and alternative fuels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10448/
Nuclear Energy Policy
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Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?
Intuitively it seems obvious to most observers that increasing energy efficiency will ultimately reduce demand for an energy resource such as electricity. Paradoxically, economic theory suggests that this decrease in demand and subsequent decrease in cost of using the resource could cause a rebound in demand. A commonly cited example is an increase in the efficiency of home air conditioning which may reduce the resident’s monetary incentive to conserve. The resident may opt to change the thermostat setting to keep the amount he pays constant, but living at a more comfortable temperature. When actually measured this “Rebound Effect” is generally acknowledged to lower predicted reductions in electricity demand by 10%-40% depending on the device that is made more efficient. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1680/
Russian Oil and Gas Challenges
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Energy and the 97th Congress: Overview
During his campaign, President Reagan called for a major shift in this country's energy policy. In particular, the President emphasized the need for more domestic production of energy and reliance on market forces to produce and distribute energy products. Now in office, the new Administration is employing executive, administrative, and legislative methods to implement these changes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8604/
Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Russian Oil and Gas Challenges
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Renewable Energy: Key to Sustainable Energy Supply
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Energy Efficiency: Key to Sustainable Energy Use
This report includes the debate in the 105th Congress over the funding and direction of energy efficiency programs involves the FY1999 spending request, the Administration's Climate Change Technology Initiative (CCTI), and proposals for restructuring the electricity industry. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs644/
Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Nuclear Energy Policy
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Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation
This report discusses the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271997/
Clean Energy Standard: Design Elements, State Baseline Compliance and Policy Considerations
This report evaluates design elements of previous Clean Energy Standards (CES) proposals, summarizes the Administration’s CES policy framework, provides state-level baseline CES compliance analysis, and presents several policy options that Congress might consider as part of a CES debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99032/
Cellulosic Biofuels: Analysis of Policy Issues for Congress
Report that provides background on the current effort to develop industrial-scale, competitive technology to produce biofuels from cellulosic feedstocks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228086/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate
On April 11, 2003, the House passed comprehensive energy legislation, H.R. 6 (247-175).Action on comprehensive energy legislation is in progress in the Senate. The Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee began markup of a comprehensive energy bill on April 7, 2003, agreeing by week’s end to provisions regarding hydrogen, hydroelectric relicensing, nuclear and renewable energy. On April 11, 2003, Chairman Domenici pulled a controversial section on climate change from the bill and indicated it would be addressed later. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10031/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation
The history of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress has been protracted. The House passed the conference version of H.R. 6 on November 18, 2003. On November 21, a cloture motion to limit debate in the Senate on the H.R. 6 conference report failed (57-40). Efforts to bring the bill back to the Senate floor early in the second session were unsuccessful. Some argued that any major changes to the legislation would not be viable because of the careful regional and political compromises that were reached to get a bill out of conference and through the House. The closest consensus was that the cost of the bill had to be reduced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10079/
Soft Versus Hard Energy Paths: An Analysis of the Debate
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Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
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Agriculture-Based Renewable Energy Production
Since the late 1970s, U.S. policy makers at both the federal and state levels have enacted a variety of incentives, regulations, and programs to encourage the production and use of agriculture-based renewable energy. Motivations cited for these legislative initiatives include energy security concerns, reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and raising domestic demand for U.S.-produced farm products. This report provides background information on farm-based energy production and how this fits into the national energy-use picture. It briefly reviews the primary agriculture-based renewable energy types and issues of concern associated with their production, particularly their economic and energy efficiencies and long-run supply. Finally, this report examines the major legislation related to farm-based energy production and use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8685/
Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation
The history of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress has been protracted. The House passed the conference version of H.R. 6 on November 18, 2003. On November 21, a cloture motion to limit debate in the Senate on the H.R. 6 conference report failed (57-40). Efforts to bring the bill back to the Senate floor early in the second session were unsuccessful. Some argued that any major changes to the legislation would not be viable because of the careful regional and political compromises that were reached to get a bill out of conference and through the House. The closest consensus was that the cost of the bill had to be reduced. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5873/
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Energy Independence: Would It Free the United States From Oil Price Shocks?
Over the past 25-years, the U.S. economy has experienced four large oil price shocks (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, and 1999-2000). Each has been a catalyst for discussions about a proper national energy policy. Many analysts have suggested that energy independence should be an integral part of such a policy. Both major party candidates for president in the 2000 election expressed similar views. However, U.S. suppliers of energy participate in the world energy market. So long as prices are determined in that market, energy independence will not free the United States from oil price shocks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2683/
Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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Gasoline Prices: Policies and Proposals
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