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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Energy Tax Policy: An Economic Analysis
The report provides background on the theory and application of tax policy as it relates to the energy sector, particularly with respect to the theory of market failure in the energy sector and the suggested policy remedies. This background provides a context for understanding how current or proposed energy tax policy may affect other policy objectives or be affected by such objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1311/
State-by-State Comparison of Selected Electricity Restructuring Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1173/
Electricity Restructuring and Tax-Exempt Bonds: Economic Analysis of Legislative Proposals
Tax-exempt bonds reduce public power's interest cost on debt and enable it to lower the price of electricity. This subsidy makes taxpayers better off only if the private market fails to provide the correct amount of electricity. In general, the private market can provide the correct amount of electricity; in those cases when it can not, the tax-exempt bond subsidy is unlikely to correct the problem. Tax-exempt bond legislation has been consistent with this perspective that an interest subsidy for electricity production does not correct a market failure; its focus has been to prohibit the spread of subsidized public power beyond its traditional service areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1222/
Congress and the Fusion Energy Sciences Program: A Historical Analysis
The U.S. government has been funding research into controlled thermonuclear fusion since 1951. Since 1957, when the program was declassified, a public record is available in the form of appropriations and authorization reports presenting congressional decisions about fusion research. This report analyzes that record in order to assess how the program may fare in the future. The program recently underwent a major restructuring at the direction of Congress, and is currently establishing plans about how to proceed toward the goal of developing a practical fusion powerplant. These plans are likely to be the subject of close congressional scrutiny during review of the FY2001 budget request from the Department of Energy digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1174/
Global Climate Change: The Role for Energy Efficiency
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1069/
Methane Hydrates: Energy Prospect or Natural Hazard?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1179/
OPEC Oil Production - Facts and Figures
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1180/
Electricity Restructuring and the Constitutionality of Retail Reciprocity Requirements
Retail reciprocity requirements have been included in the electricity restructuring legislation of at least four states. These requirements mandate generally that out-of-state utilities which operate in a state “closed” to retail competition cannot market power to retail consumers in the “open” state. Because state reciprocity requirements enacted without congressional authorization are probably unconstitutional under the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, Congress would have to include a reciprocity provision in federal electricity restructuring legislation if it wants to support the view that such a provision will increase competition. This report reviews the treatment of state reciprocity requirements by the U.S. Supreme Court and discusses Congress’ power under the Commerce Clause. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1181/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1172/
Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report provides an introduction to the research, development, and commercialization of alternative vehicle technologies, specifically electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. It provides a description of the technology, and discusses issues such as cost, maintenance and fueling infrastructure, and performance for each type of vehicle. The report also discusses current congressional action on issues affecting these vehicles, as well as actions by the Administration and state and local governments. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1176/
Transportation Fuel Taxes: Impacts of a Repeal or Moratorium
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1182/
The Federal Excise Tax on Gasoline and the Highway Trust Fund: A Short History
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1171/
Coping with High Oil Prices: A Summary of Options
A near tripling in the price of crude oil from March 1999 to the first months of 2000, coupled with other developments, initially brought about sharp increases in the price of home heating oil and diesel fuel, which are essentially the same product. Gasoline prices then increased. These developments brought about discussion of what might be done to mitigate price increases and possible spot shortages, and what might be done to prevent a similar situation in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1175/
Outer Continental Shelf: Oil and Gas Leasing and Revenue
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1167/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6362/
Midwest Gasoline Prices: A Review of Recent Market Developments
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1177/
Electricity Restructuring: Comparison of Comprehensive Bills
Once considered the nation's most regulated industry, the electric utility industry is evolving into a more competitive environment. Currently, the focus of this development is the generating sector, where the advent of new generating technologies has lowered both entry barriers to competitors of traditional utilities and the marginal costs of those competitors below those of some traditional utilities. This technological advance has combined with legislative initiatives, such as the Energy Policy Act (EPACT), to encourage the introduction of competitive forces into the electric generating sector. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1170/
Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1199/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Restructuring Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1168/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1194/
Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development
Appropriations are one part of a complex federal budget process that includes budget resolutions, appropriations (regular, supplemental, and continuing) bills, rescissions, and budget reconciliation bills. This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress passes each year. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development Appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1211/
Energy Tax Policy
The Clinton Administration’s FY2001 budget proposes several tax subsidies for energy conservation and alternative fuels: 1) solar energy tax credits very similar to those that expired in 1985; 2) a new tax credit for the cost of a new home that would meet certain energy efficiency standards; 3) a tax credit for advanced energy-efficient equipment for space heating and cooling and hot water heaters; 4) more accelerated depreciation deductions for distributed power technologies, including small electrical generating systems (self-generated power), and for co-generation systems; 5) a new tax credit for the purchase of hybrid vehicles – cars, minivans, sport utility vehicles, and pickups – that run alternately on a consumable fuel (such as gasoline) and a rechargeable energy storage system (such as an electric battery); 6) extension of the present $4,000 tax credit for electric vehicles, which would otherwise terminate on 2004; and 7) a liberalization of the renewable electricity credit from such wind systems and closed-loop biomass systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1169/
Energy Independence: Would It Free the United States From Oil Price Shocks?
Over the past 25-years, the U.S. economy has experienced four large oil price shocks (1973-74, 1979-80, 1990-91, and 1999-2000). Each has been a catalyst for discussions about a proper national energy policy. Many analysts have suggested that energy independence should be an integral part of such a policy. Both major party candidates for president in the 2000 election expressed similar views. However, U.S. suppliers of energy participate in the world energy market. So long as prices are determined in that market, energy independence will not free the United States from oil price shocks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1183/
Appropriations for FY2001: Energy and Water Development
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill, which includes funding for civil projects of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (BuRec), most of the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1212/
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1178/
Department of Energy Research and Development Budget for FY2001: Description and Analysis
This report focuses on the R&D programs. It divides the programs into four categories: energy resources R&D, science, national security R&D, and environmental management R&D. Those categories, which approximate the way DOE has divided up its programs, are set up to keep similar research activities together.1 This arrangement is somewhat different from the way the R&D budget is approached by the congressional appropriations committees. This report gives a description of the programs within each category including their research objectives and the activities where significant budget changes were requested for FY2001. It then describes the request and congressional actions on the request. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1694/
Electricity Restructuring: The Implications for Air Quality
In the context of federal and state proposals to restructure the electric utility industry, this paper analyzes forces and policies affecting utility generation that may have consequences for emissions of air pollutants and of greenhouse gases. Key concerns are potential increases in nitrogen oxide emissions, raising questions about the effectiveness of the Clean Air Act to regulate a restructured industry, and in carbon dioxide emissions, which are not currently regulated but could be if the U.S. ratifies the Kyoto Agreement. These issues may be raised in the context of electricity restructuring legislation. For ongoing legislative activities, see CRS Issue Brief IB10006, Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1654/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Restructuring Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1657/
Authority of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to Fix Electricity Rates and Charges and to Require Refund Payments by a Public Utility
Sections 205 and 206 of the Federal Power Act concern rates and charges collected by a public utility in transmitting or selling electric energy in interstate commerce. These rates and charges are required to be just and reasonable. States retain jurisdiction over facilities for generation, distribution, or transmission of electric energy in intrastate commerce. The Commission has the authority to determine that an existing rate is unjust or unreasonable and set a new rate. In certain situations Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) may have authority to refund amounts paid in excess of just and reasonable rates. Case law is useful in determining when such a situation may exist. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1620/
Strategic Petroleum Reserve
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1661/
Rising Oil Prices: What Dangers Do They Pose for the Economy?
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1668/
U.S. Home Heating Oil Price and Supply During Winter 2000-2001: Policy Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1672/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1669/
Nuclear Energy Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1663/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2038/
Natural Gas Prices: Overview of Market Factors and Policy Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1673/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Restructuring Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1658/
Pipeline Safety: Federal Program and Reauthorization Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1679/
Air Quality and Electricity: Initiatives to Increase Pollution Controls
This report discusses air quality initiatives (such as the Ozone Transport Rule) that primarily focus on reducing and enforcing emissions from coal-fired electric generating utilities in the Midwest and South. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1401/
The Clean Coal Technology Program: Current Prospects
The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program, started in the 1980's and funded generously in the early 1990's, has completed most of its surviving projects and has not funded any new ones since 1994. However, President Bush’s FY2002 budget outline proposed spending $2 billion over 10 years on a restructured CCT program. It is not clear what kind of projects would be included in the new program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1402/
Magnetic Fusion: The DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1666/
Energy Costs and Agriculture
U.S. agriculture is not an especially energy-intensive industry, but energy does account for about 6% of farm production costs. Additionally, farming is a highly mechanized industry and requires timely energy supplies at particular stages of the production cycle in order to achieve optimum yields. A substantial part of energy use by agriculture is indirect —embodied in the chemicals applied and machinery used on farms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1674/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1670/
MTBE in Gasoline: Clean Air and Drinking Water Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1653/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1652/
Supplemental Appropriations for FY2002: Defense Readiness and Other Programs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1705/
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
Energy security, a major driver of federal energy efficiency programs in the past, came back into play as oil and gas prices rose late in the year 2000. Also, the electricity shortages in California have brought a new emphasis to the role that energy efficiency and energy conservation may play in dampening electricity demand. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1656/
Energy Efficiency and the Rebound Effect: Does Increasing Efficiency Decrease Demand?
Intuitively it seems obvious to most observers that increasing energy efficiency will ultimately reduce demand for an energy resource such as electricity. Paradoxically, economic theory suggests that this decrease in demand and subsequent decrease in cost of using the resource could cause a rebound in demand. A commonly cited example is an increase in the efficiency of home air conditioning which may reduce the resident’s monetary incentive to conserve. The resident may opt to change the thermostat setting to keep the amount he pays constant, but living at a more comfortable temperature. When actually measured this “Rebound Effect” is generally acknowledged to lower predicted reductions in electricity demand by 10%-40% depending on the device that is made more efficient. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1680/
Energy in 2001: Crisis Again?
This report deals with changes in the national energy picture since the early 1990s, when Congress last dealt at length with energy policy. It reviews the problem areas and discusses differing views on how to deal with the energy situation in the long run. A summary of some current legislative initiatives is also given. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1675/
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: The Next Chapter
This report discusses the ongoing debate about whether or not to open the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) for energy development. The report discusses arguments for and against such development and focuses especially on related pieces of legislation that directly affects the future of the ANWR. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1404/
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