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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Nuclear Energy Policy
This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94062/
U.S. Renewable Electricity: How Does the Production Tax Credit (PTC) Impact Wind Markets?
This report discusses the use of wind as a power source, including: production tax credits (PTC), U.S. electricity demand growth, and the price of natural gas. Issues for Congress include whether or not the PTC will be extended. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93940/
The Navy Biofuel Initiative Under the Defense Production Act
This report looks at the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to ÔÇťassist the development and support of a sustainable commercial biofuels industry" which was entered into by the Secretaries of Energy, Agriculture, and the Navy. It raises issues and concerns for Congress to consider when deciding how to fund MOU. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93938/
Hydropower: Federal and Nonfederal Investment
This report discusses the changing energy and economic landscape, as well as the roughly 25 bills introduced by the 112th Congress regarding hydropower (the use of flowing water to produce electricity). Congress is examining numerous energy sources to determine their contribution to the nation's energy portfolio and the federal role in supporting these sources, including hydropower. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93943/
U.S. Nuclear Cooperation with India: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the United States' relationship with India as it regards nuclear nonproliferation and cooperation. It particularly looks at agreements made between the Bush administration and India, and the Obama administration's continuation of these policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96754/
Department of the Interior (DOI) Reorganization of Ocean Energy Programs
This report looks at recent Department of the Interior (DOI) institutional reforms and use of its new regulatory framework. These changes are meant to facilitate ocean energy development that was mandated by the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98024/
Department of Defense Implementation of the Federal Data Center Consolidation Initiative: Implications for Federal Information Technology Reform Management
This report discusses how the Department of Defense (DOD) is consolidating data centers in order to conserve energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98028/
Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Issues
This report reviews past and proposed treatment of hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Water Drinking Act, the principal federal statute for regulating the underground injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews current provisions for regulating underground injection activities, and discusses some possible implications of, and issues associated with, enactment of legislation authorizing the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate hydraulic fracturing under this statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97999/
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the diminishment of Arctic sea ice, the ensuing increase in human activities in the Arctic, and concerns about the region's future. It provides overviews of: Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122198/
Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically
Report that discusses reasons why some fuel-efficient vehicles are not sold in the U.S. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227780/
Shale Gas and Hydraulic Fracturing: CRS Experts
This report contains tables that provide names and contact information for CRS experts on major issues associated with hydraulic fracturing and unconventional oil and gas resource development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122242/
Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities
This report discusses the physical security at nuclear power plants and concerns of radiological sabotage, a deliberate act against a plant that could directly or indirectly endanger public health and safety through exposure to radiation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122319/
Weather-Related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency
This report focuses on the impacts of sustained power outages as might result from the result of seasonal storms, and whether there is a role for the federal government in hastening the restoration of power from weather-related outages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122249/
Energy Policy: Election Year Issues and Legislative Proposals
This report looks at how controversies stemming from various importance given to different aspects of United States energy policy affect the legislation on energy policy, particularly during election years. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122263/
Residential Energy Tax Credits: Overview and Analysis
This report explores one policy option for promoting residential energy efficiency: tax credits. It begins by providing an overview of the current residential energy-efficiency tax credits. The report then goes on to provide an economic rationale for residential energy-efficiency tax incentives, introducing the concept of "market failures" and "market barriers" which may lead to suboptimal or "economically inefficient" investment in energy-efficiency technologies. The final sections of this report provide an economic analysis of the primary tax incentives for residential energy efficiency and briefly review various policy options. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122219/
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for EPA to approve a waiver petition. Transportation fuels are required by federal law to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel each year. The RFS, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct, P.L. 109-58) and amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), requires that 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122348/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122325/
Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power
This report is intended to provide background information needed to understand the debate over proposed strategies to redesign the global nuclear fuel cycle. It begins with a look at the motivating factors underlying the resurgent interest in nuclear power in some parts of the world, the nuclear power industry's current state of affairs, and the interdependence of the various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122318/
Natural Gas in the U.S. Economy: Opportunities for Growth
Report that examines what has changed in the natural gas industry and focuses on the demand side and ancillary benefits to the U.S. economy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227823/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 112th Congress
Report discussing the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227642/
Department of Defense Purchase of Renewable Energy Credits Under the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012
Report that looks at the background of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2012 (NDAA), the Department of Defense's (DOD) electrical use, and DOD electricity use versus state electricity use. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227831/
Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction
This report examines wildfire biomass fuels. It discusses fuel characteristics and their relation to wildfire intensity and spread, and includes a description of actions proposed to reduce biomass fuel levels, their effectiveness for protecting property and resources from wildfires, and their impacts on other resource values. It concludes with an examination of the federal authorities for fuel reduction activities on federal and non-federal lands, together with data on the funding provided under each of these authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282274/
Europe's Energy Security: Options and Challenges to Natural Gas Supply Diversification
Report that focuses on potential approaches that Europe might employ to diversify its sources of natural gas supply, Russia's role in Europe's natural gas policies, and key factors that could hinder efforts to develop alternative suppliers of natural gas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227750/
Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues
Report that discusses the energy policy in the United States, which is focused on three major goals: assuring a secure supply of energy, keeping energy costs low, and protecting the environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227812/
European Union Wind and Solar Electricity Policies: Overview and Considerations
The subject matter covered within this report is European Union (EU) renewable electricity generation--specifically onshore wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) electricity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227901/
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress
This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227666/
Proposed U.S.-Mexico Transboundary Hydrocarbons Agreement: Background and Issues for Congress
This report discusses the offshore areas of the Gulf of Mexico that provide a setting for domestic and international energy production, U.S. military training and border operations, trade and commerce, fishing, tourist attractions, and recreation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227919/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 113th Congress
This report discusses the energy tax policy that may also be considered as part of comprehensive tax reform legislation in the 113th Congress. Also the report discusses a number of other energy tax incentives, including provisions to support building energy efficiency and renewable fuels, that are also scheduled to expire at the end of 2013. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227921/
Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development bill, which includes funding for civil works projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), the Department of the Interior's Central Utah Project (CUP) and Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and a number of independent agencies, including the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267818/
U.S. Natural Gas Exports: New Opportunities, Uncertain Outcomes
This report examines what has changed in the U.S. natural gas market and the prospects and implications of the United States becoming a significant net natural gas exporter. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227739/
The Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve and the National Oilheat Research Alliance
This report discusses the price of home heating oil in the Northeast. The Northeast demand for home heating oil has declined by 47% since 2000, from nearly 7 billion gallons to 3.6 billion gallons in 2011. The report provides detailed information regarding northeast home heating oil reserve and national Oilheat Research Alliance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227938/
Nuclear Energy Policy
This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267811/
EPA Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Plants: Many Questions, Some Answers
This report discusses the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) proposals for electric generating units (EGU) Greenhouse Gas Emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227877/
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report describes federal programs that provide grants, loans, loan guarantees, and other direct or indirect incentives for energy efficiency, energy conservation, and renewable energy. For each program, the report provides the administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and the program expiration date. The appendixes provide summary information in a tabular format and also list recently expired programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267824/
Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill that provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and several independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267850/
EPA Standards for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Power Plants: Many Questions, Some Answers
This report discusses the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) proposals for electric generating units (EGU) Greenhouse Gas Emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc267804/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272127/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation
This report discusses the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271997/
Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy
This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272009/
The Renewable Fuel Standard: In Brief
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), including some of the widely discussed issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272064/
Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues
This report discusses the energy policy in the United States that is focused on three major goals: assuring a secure supply of energy, keeping energy costs low, and protecting the environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272033/
Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain
This report provides a discussion of the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements (REEs), their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272008/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 113th Congress
This report discusses the energy tax policy that may also be considered as part of comprehensive tax reform legislation in the 113th Congress. Also the report discusses a number of other energy tax incentives scheduled to expire at the end of 2013, including provisions to support building energy efficiency and renewable fuels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272053/
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for EPA to approve a waiver petition. Transportation fuels are required by federal law to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel each year. The RFS, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct, P.L. 109-58) and amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), requires that 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276939/
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer
This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276890/
EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: Congressional Responses and Options
This report discusses elements of the greenhouse gas (GHG) controversy, providing background on stationary sources of GHG pollution and identifying options Congress has at its disposal to address GHG issues, including: (1) resolutions of disapproval under the Congressional Review Act; (2) freestanding legislation; (3) the use of appropriations bills as a vehicle to influence EPA activity; and (4) amendments to the Clean Air Act, including legislation to establish a new GHG control regime. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284458/
Energy and Water Development: FY2014 Appropriations
This report discusses the Energy and Water Development appropriations bill that provides funding for civil works projects of the Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), for the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), the Department of Energy (DOE), and several independent agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284521/
Energy Policy: 113th Congress Issues
This report discusses the energy policy in the United States that is focused on three major goals: assuring a secure supply of energy, keeping energy costs low, and protecting the environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284485/
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer
This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287886/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc306532/