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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1671/
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10055/
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2678/
"Boutique Fuels" and Reformulated Gasoline: Harmonization of Fuel Standards
This report discusses how gasoline composition is regulated and explains the various federal and state gasoline standards. Next, the report presents some of the key issues with the federal RFG program. Some of the problems associated with boutique fuels are discussed, as well as some of the potential effects of harmonization. Finally, congressional actions in the 109th Congress related to boutique fuels, RFG, and harmonization, including the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9129/
Energy Provisions of the Farm Bill: Comparison of the New Law with Previous Law and House and Senate Bills
This report provides a side-by-side comparison of the energy provisions of the new law with previously existing law, as well as the versions engrossed by the House and Senate in the 107th Congress. While the energy provisions in the House version were spread throughout the bill, the Senate version consolidated most of its energy provisions into Title IX - Energy. Both bills provided for the use of reserve land for renewable energy production. The House version also allowed for loans to farmers in response to high energy prices, while the Senate version did not. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9081/
Ethanol Imports and the Caribbean Basin Initiative
Fuel ethanol consumption has grown significantly in the past several years. Most of the U.S. market is supplied by domestic refiners producing ethanol from American corn. However, imports do play a role, albeit small, in the U.S. market. One reason for the relatively small role is a 54-cent-per-gallon tariff on imported ethanol. This tariff offsets an economic incentive of 51 cents per gallon for the use of ethanol in gasoline. However, to promote development and stability in the Caribbean region and Central America, the Caribbean Basin Initiative (CBI) allows the imports of most products, including ethanol, duty-free. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9112/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8991/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10017/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2038/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5623/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5622/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans, and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5621/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3591/
Sport Utility Vehicles, Mini-Vans and Light Trucks: An Overview of Fuel Economy and Emissions Standards
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3590/
Tax Incentives for Alternative Fuel and Advanced Technology Vehicles
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9258/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7720/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7586/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7585/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4505/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4504/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4502/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2677/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2676/
Fuel Ethanol: Background and Public Policy Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1172/
Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report provides an introduction to the research, development, and commercialization of alternative vehicle technologies, specifically electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles. It provides a description of the technology, and discusses issues such as cost, maintenance and fueling infrastructure, and performance for each type of vehicle. The report also discusses current congressional action on issues affecting these vehicles, as well as actions by the Administration and state and local governments. It will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1176/
Advanced Vehicle Technologies: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report discusses three major vehicle technologies — electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles — as well as advanced component technologies. Each technology is discussed in terms of cost, fueling and maintenance infrastructure, and performance. The report also discusses key legislation in the 108th Congress, as well as federal, state, and local activity relevant to these technologies. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10035/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86541/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31330/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
Alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles are seen by proponents as integral to improving urban air quality, decreasing dependence on foreign oil, and reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. However, major barriers—especially economics—currently prevent the widespread use of these fuels and technologies. The 112th Congress has debated alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles directly and as it has addressed other key topics. On June 16, 2011 the Senate approved S.Amdt. 476 which would have eliminated the excise tax credit for blending ethanol in gasoline before its December 31, 2011 expiration date. Although the underlying legislation failed a cloture vote in the Senate, the amendment was approved 73-27. The prospects for further action increasing or extending biofuels and alternative fuels tax incentives may be limited in light of that vote. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87129/
Biofuels in the 2007 Energy and Farm Bills: A Side-by-Side Comparison
This report provides a side-by-side comparison of biofuels-related provisions in Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140) with prior law, and with comparable provisions in the House and Senate farm bills. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96793/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94063/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94064/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83916/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including the administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. The Appendix provides summary information in a table format. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97967/
Biofuels Provisions in the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-140), H.R. 3221, and H.R. 6: A Side-by-Side Comparison
This report discusses the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 and the key biofuels-related provisions of the final legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96788/
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005, P.L. 109-58). The RFS requires the use of 9.0 billion gallons of renewable fuel in 2008, increasing to 36 billion gallons in 2022. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87141/
Intermediate-Level Blends of Ethanol in Gasoline, and the Ethanol "Blend Wall"
This report discusses the growing interest in the potential for ethanol to displace petroleum as a transportation fuel, as well as related issues, including current Clean Air Act (CAA) limitation on ethanol content in gasoline; the requests of ethanol producers for an increase of this limitation; and the effects the limitation has upon vehicle and engine warranties and the infrastructures of the automobile and fuel industries. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29564/
The Market for Biomass-Based Diesel Fuel in the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report discusses the current market for biomass-based diesel (BBD) fuels and their corresponding RINs (Renewable Identification Numbers) under the RFS. It examines the role that the RIN market may play as an economic incentive for the production of biodiesel and other BBD fuels in the future. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103121/
Natural Gas Passenger Vehicles: Availability, Cost, and Performance
Higher gasoline prices and concerns over U.S. oil dependence have raised interest in natural gas vehicles (NGVs). Use of NGVs for personal transportation has focused on compressed natural gas (CNG) as an alternative to gasoline. Consumer interest has grown, both for new NGVs as well as for conversions of existing personal vehicles to run on CNG. This report finds that the market for natural gas vehicles will likely remain limited unless the differential between natural gas and gasoline prices remains high in order to offset the higher purchase price for an NGV. Conversions of existing vehicles will also continue to be restricted unless the Clean Air Act (CAA) is amended or if the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) makes changes to its enforcement of the CAA. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10808/
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for EPA to approve a waiver petition. Transportation fuels are required by federal law to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel each year. The RFS, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct, P.L. 109-58) and amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), requires that 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122348/
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for EPA to approve a waiver petition. Transportation fuels are required by federal law to contain a minimum amount of renewable fuel each year. The RFS, established by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct, P.L. 109-58) and amended by the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), requires that 15.2 billion gallons of renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels in 2012. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276939/
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard
The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EISA requires an increasing amount of the 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022 mandate be met with "advanced biofuels." This report defines the classification "biofuels," discusses the ongoing debate regarding several aspects of biofuels endeavors, and discusses related legislative efforts on climate change policy and low-carbon fuel standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26141/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1670/
Diesel Fuel and Engines: An Analysis of EPA's New Regulations
This report reviews the final regulations on diesel fuel and diesel engine emissions signed by Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Carol Browner December 21, 2000 and promulgated January 18, 2001. This report examines the rule’s potential impacts on fuel supply, summarizes the issues related to pollution controls, discusses potential impacts on the economy, and discusses issues raised by the timing and implementation schedule of the proposed rule. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1669/
Electricity Restructuring and Tax-Exempt Bonds: Economic Analysis of Legislative Proposals
Tax-exempt bonds reduce public power's interest cost on debt and enable it to lower the price of electricity. This subsidy makes taxpayers better off only if the private market fails to provide the correct amount of electricity. In general, the private market can provide the correct amount of electricity; in those cases when it can not, the tax-exempt bond subsidy is unlikely to correct the problem. Tax-exempt bond legislation has been consistent with this perspective that an interest subsidy for electricity production does not correct a market failure; its focus has been to prohibit the spread of subsidized public power beyond its traditional service areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1222/
Restructuring Electricity Markets, Public Power, and Tax-Exempt Bonds: An Economic Analysis
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs688/
"Price Gouging," the Antitrust Laws, and Vertical Integration in the Petroleum Industry: How They Are Related
This report, which may be updated to further reflect congressional action, attempts to provide the antitrust context for prohibited practices, such as "price gouging"; notes prior congressional action concerning vertical divestiture in the petroleum industry; and provides information on the state "divorcement" statutes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10649/
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