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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
This report discusses policy options for Congress regarding gas prices. The high price of gasoline was an important consideration during the debate on major energy legislation, which ended August 8 as the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005, H.R. 6 (P.L. 109-58). However, prices continued to surge, spiking at the end of August when Hurricane Katrina shut down refining operations in the Gulf of Mexico. The continuing crisis renewed attention to some issues that were dropped or compromised in the debate over P.L. 109-58. A large number of factors combined to put pressure on gasoline prices, including increased world demand for crude oil and U.S. refinery capacity inadequate to supply gasoline to a recovering national economy. The war and continued violence in Iraq added uncertainty and a threat of supply disruption that added pressure particularly to the commodity futures markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10126/
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
This report discusses policy options for Congress regarding gas prices. The high price of gasoline was an important consideration during the debate on major energy legislation, which ended August 8 as the President signed the Energy Policy Act of 2005, H.R. 6 (P.L. 109-58). However, prices continued to surge, spiking at the end of August when Hurricane Katrina shut down refining operations in the Gulf of Mexico. The continuing crisis renewed attention to some issues that were dropped or compromised in the debate over P.L. 109-58. A large number of factors combined to put pressure on gasoline prices, including increased world demand for crude oil and U.S. refinery capacity inadequate to supply gasoline to a recovering national economy. The war and continued violence in Iraq added uncertainty and a threat of supply disruption that added pressure particularly to the commodity futures markets. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8751/
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
This report discusses policy options for Congress regarding gas prices. The high price of gasoline was an important consideration during the debate on major energy legislation, which ended with the Energy Policy Act of 2005, H.R. 6 (P.L. 109-58). However, prices continued to surge, due to a large number of factors, such as the effects of Hurricane Katrina on Gulf Coast refineries, an increased world demand for crude oil, and inadequate U.S. refinery capacity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824540/
U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics
Energy supplies and prices are major economic factors in the United States, and energy markets are volatile and unpredictable. Thus, energy policy has been a recurring issue for Congress since the first major crisis in the 1970s. As an aid in policy making, this report presents a current and historical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83919/
U.S. Energy: Overview and Key Statistics
This report presents a current and historical view of the supply and consumption of various forms of energy including oil, electricity, coal, and renewable energies. It includes compiled statistics and charts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97970/
U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers
This report provides an overview of aggregate energy consumption, and presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, coal and renewable energy. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462855/
U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers
This report offers an overview of energy markets, supplies and prices. It also provides figures regarding the energy consumption in United States since 1950s. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86545/
The European Union's Energy Security Challenges
This report examines some of Europe's critical energy security challenges and EU efforts to coordinate a common European energy strategy. It also includes an overview of broader transatlantic energy security cooperation and will be updated as needed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94072/
The Federal Excise Tax on Gasoline and the Highway Trust Fund: A Short History
A history and overview of current issues relating to the gasoline excise tax. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86637/
DOD Alternative Fuels: Policy, Initiatives and Legislative Activity
This report provides background information and identifies issues for Congress regarding Department of Defense (DOD) alternative fuel initiatives, a subject of debate at congressional hearings on DOD's proposed FY2013 budget. The services (the Army, Navy, and Air Force) have spent approximately $48 million to purchase alternative fuels, and the Navy has proposed a $170 million investment in biofuel production capacity. The services have also spent funds on testing, certification and demonstrations of alternative fuels. By comparison, DOD purchases of petroleum fuels totaled approximately $17.3 billion in FY2011. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462408/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
This report examines the interrelationships of the variables regarding the debate on climate change to explore their implications for policies that address the problem. The three variables underpinning the debates and justified response to the issue are: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98092/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810477/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc812958/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820945/
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation
Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs356/
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation in the 104th Congress
Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs480/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 105th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs977/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6362/
Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1194/
Air Force Aerial Refueling
Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9865/
Air Force Aerial Refueling
Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial. This report will be updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10281/
Air Force Aerial Refueling
Aerial refueling aircraft are key to military air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is numerous and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. The Air Force’s proposal to lease 100 Boeing 767 aircraft to replace it’s KC-135E fleet is controversial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7399/
Air Force Aerial Refueling
Aerial refueling aircraft are key to air operations. The U.S. tanker fleet is large and effective, but old. Modernizing or replacing the current fleet of tankers presents the Department of Defense (DOD) with difficult choices in terms of desired capabilities, force structure, and budget. How this fleet will be maintained or replaced, and on what schedule, has proven controversial. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7459/
Middle East Free Trade Area: Progress Report
The purpose of this report is to describe Middle East Free Trade Area (MEFTA) in terms of: (1) its impetus, (2) its major elements; (3) background trade data, (4) details; and (5) arguments for each. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10842/
Algae's Potential as a Transportation Biofuel
This report discusses the status of algae-based biofuels (ABB) research and development, federal funding, and legislative concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462387/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation
This report discusses the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc271997/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation
This report discusses the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501754/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 112th Congress
Report discussing the use of biomass, its legislative history, and the proposed redefinition of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227642/
Biomass Feedstocks for Biopower: Background and Selected Issues
The production of bioenergy - renewable energy derived from biomass - could potentially increase national energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and contribute to rural economic growth. This report provides analyses of commonly discussed biomass feedstocks and their relative potential for power generation. Additional biopower issues - feedstock accessibility, the biomass power plant carbon-neutrality debate, and unintended consequences of legislative activities to promote bioenergy - are also discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc31382/
Biopower: Background and Federal Support
The report begins with general summaries about bioenergy and biopower, including potential benefits and challenges, feedstocks, and biopower technologies. It also describes federal support available for biopower and relevant legislative concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743409/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): Authorizations of Appropriations Proposed by the Energy Policy Modernization Act of 2015 (S. 2012)
This report describes provisions in S. 2012, the Energy Policy Modernization Act of 2015, and analyzes the authorizations of appropriations for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and activities in S. 2012, which was reported from the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on September 9, 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795888/
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?
This report discusses some factors taken into account when considering whether biopower is carbon neutral. It does not discuss carbon accounting for other bioenergy pathways. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503337/
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?
This report discusses some of the most relevant factors to take into account when considering whether or not biopower is carbon neutral. It does not discuss carbon accounting for other bioenergy pathways. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99021/
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?
This report discusses Biomass energy, or bioenergy, which may receive more attention from stakeholders as an alternative to fossil fuels because of its potential to minimize the environmental impacts of energy production, provide energy security, and promote economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795439/
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?
This report discusses biomass energy, or bioenergy, which may receive more attention from stakeholders as an alternative to fossil fuels because of its potential to minimize the environmental impacts of energy production, provide energy security, and promote economic development. The report discusses some factors taken into account when considering whether biopower is carbon neutral. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824675/
Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers
This report, in a question and answer format, discusses some challenges facing the cellulosic biofuels community, including feedstock supply estimates, and potential legislative options to address cellulosic biofuels production uncertainty for the Renewable Fuel Standard. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463313/
Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) was expanded under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA; P.L. 110-140) in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil, promote biofuel use, and stabilize transportation fuel prices, among other goals. Over a 15-year period, the RFS seeks to establish a market for biofuels in the transportation sector by requiring that increasing amounts of biofuels-36 billion gallons by 2022-be blended into transportation fuel. The mandate is to be accomplished with an assortment of advanced biofuels, including cellulosic biofuels-fuels produced from cellulosic materials including grasses, trees, and agricultural and municipal wastes-which will ramp up over time to comprise some 44% of the RFS in 2022. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83938/
Meeting the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) Mandate for Cellulosic Biofuels: Questions and Answers
This report discusses the background of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and answers some common questions about it. The RFS was expanded under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 in an effort to reduce dependence on foreign oil, promote biofuel use, and stabilize transportation fuel prices, among other goals. Over a 15-year period, the RFS seeks to establish a market for biofuels in the transportation sector by requiring that increasing amounts of biofuels be blended into transportation fuel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96675/
The Renewable Fuel Standard: In Brief
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), including some of the widely discussed issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272064/
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Final Rule for 2014, 2015, and 2016
This report discusses the final rule for the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which was released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While the rule contains wide-ranging information, most stakeholders are primarily concerned with the annual volume amounts for total renewable fuel, advanced biofuel, cellulosic biofuel, and biomass-based diesel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795884/
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): In Brief
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates that U.S. transportation fuel must contain a minimum volume of biofuel, and is a federal statutory requirement. The mandated minimum volume increases annually and can be met using both conventional biofuel (e.g., cornstarch ethanol) and advanced biofuels. This report also includes some of the widely-discussed issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743488/
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Waiver Authority and Modification of Volumes
This report discusses the process and criteria for the Environmental Protection Agency to waive various portions of the renewable fuel standard (RFS), and the modification of applicable volumes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689153/
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Waiver Authority and Modification of Volumes
This report discusses the process and criteria for the Environmental Protection Agency to waive various portions of the renewable fuel standard (RFS), and the modification of applicable volumes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824757/
Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction
This report examines wildfire biomass fuels. It discusses fuel characteristics and their relation to wildfire intensity and spread, and includes a description of actions proposed to reduce biomass fuel levels, their effectiveness for protecting property and resources from wildfires, and their impacts on other resource values. It concludes with an examination of the federal authorities for fuel reduction activities on federal and non-federal lands, together with data on the funding provided under each of these authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282274/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 111th Congress
This report discusses the use of biomass as an energy feedstock, which is emerging as a potentially viable alternative to address U.S. energy security concerns, foreign oil dependence, rural economic development, and diminishing sources of conventional energy. Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy (e.g., switchgrass or prairie perennials), crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. This report discusses legislation regarding biomass, the evolving definition of biomass, and the positions of supporters and detractors of biomass as an alternative energy source. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490972/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 111th Congress
This report discusses the use of biomass as an energy feedstock, which is emerging as a potentially viable alternative to address U.S. energy security concerns, foreign oil dependence, rural economic development, and diminishing sources of conventional energy. Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy (e.g., switchgrass or prairie perennials), crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. This report discusses legislation regarding biomass, the evolving definition of biomass, and the positions of supporters and detractors of biomass as an alternative energy source. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc29569/
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 111th Congress
The use of biomass as an energy feedstock is emerging as a potentially viable alternative to address U.S. energy security concerns, foreign oil dependence, rural economic development, and diminishing sources of conventional energy. Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy, crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. Most legislation involving biomass has focused on encouraging the production of liquid fuels from corn. For over 30 years, the term biomass has been a part of legislation enacted by Congress for various programs, indicating some interest by the general public and policymakers in expanding its use. To aid understanding of why U.S. consumers, utility groups, refinery managers, and others have not fully adopted biomass as an energy resource, this report investigates the characterization of biomass in legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86549/
Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy
This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272009/
Clean Energy Standard: Potential Qualifying Energy Sources
This report begins with a brief examination of clean energy, renewable energy, and alternative energy. It then presents possible selection criteria Congress could use to determine which sources could be eligible for a CES depending on the goal(s) of the CES. The report provides an overview of the energy sources most commonly discussed as potential CES qualifying sources: biomass, fossil fuels (natural gas combined-cycle and coal-fired power plants with carbon capture and sequestration), geothermal resources, nuclear, solar, water, and wind. The report describes where each source can be found in the United States, the estimated quantity available for electricity generation, technologies used to create electricity from the source, advantages and disadvantages of using the source for electricity generation, and policy implications should the source be included in a CES.5 The report also contains a section on energy efficiency and its potential inclusion in a CES. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40142/
Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy
This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491091/