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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use

Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use

Date: March 5, 2010
Creator: Blodgett, John & Parker, Larry
Description: The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use

Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use

Date: December 31, 2008
Creator: Blodgett, John & Parker, Larry
Description: The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Solar Projects: DOE Section 1705 Loan Guarantees

Solar Projects: DOE Section 1705 Loan Guarantees

Date: October 25, 2011
Creator: Brown, Phillip
Description: This report discusses the solar energy initiative and the political implications. The objective of this report is to provide Congress with insight regarding solar projects supported by Department of Energy (DOE’s) loan guarantee program, the risk characteristics of these projects, and how other DOE loan guarantee projects are either similar to or different from the Solyndra solar manufacturing project.
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Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress

Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress

Date: September 24, 2012
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F.
Description: The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of energy tax policy as it stands at the start of the 112th Congress.
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Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress

Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress

Date: March 28, 2012
Creator: Sherlock, Molly F. & Crandall-Hollick, Margot L.
Description: The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of the current status of energy tax policy.
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Energy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79)

Energy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79)

Date: March 12, 2014
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report focuses on the policies contained in the 2014 farm bill that support agriculture based renewable energy, especially biofuels. The introductory sections of this report briefly describe how U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bioenergy policies evolved and how they fit into the larger context of U.S. biofuels policy.
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Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects

Date: May 2, 2007
Creator: Lane, Nic
Description: This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field.
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The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)

The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)

Date: January 27, 2003
Creator: Stoltzfus, Emilie
Description: This report provides background on the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP), originally established in 1981 by Title XXVI of P.L. 97-35 and reauthorized several times. It is a block grant program under which the federal government gives states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories and commonwealths, and Indian tribal organizations (referred to as grantees) annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households.
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Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues

Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues

Date: June 16, 2005
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: Renewable energy is derived from resources that are generally not depleted by human use, such as the sun, wind, and water movement. This report discusses various aspects of policy regarding renewable energy including tax credits and budget legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Tax Incentives in the 108th Congress: A Comparison of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 6 and the Senate Finance Committee Amendment

Energy Tax Incentives in the 108th Congress: A Comparison of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 6 and the Senate Finance Committee Amendment

Date: August 19, 2003
Creator: Lazzari, Salvatore
Description: This report discusses energy taxes incentives, which have long been an integral component of this nation’s energy policy. Efforts to significantly expand existing energy tax subsidies have been undertaken since the 106th Congress, but controversy over various non-tax energy policy provisions — corporate average fuel economy standards, the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, etc. — have helped stall the legislation.
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Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations

Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations

Date: December 24, 2008
Creator: Parker, Larry & Blodgett, John
Description: This report uses the data compiled by World Resources Institute (WRI) to examine a pivotal and long-running issue surrounding U.S. climate change policy: the appropriate roles of developed and developing countries in addressing climate change.
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Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues

Date: November 5, 2012
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Pirog, Robert; Luther, Linda & Vann, Adam
Description: This report describes the Keystone XL pipeline project, as proposed by TransCanada in its May 4, 2012, Presidential Permit application, and the process and procedures that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also summarizes issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline’s developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report reviews the constitutional basis for the State Department’s authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents’ possible challenges to this authority.
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Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Regulatory Issues

Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Regulatory Issues

Date: January 10, 2013
Creator: Tiemann, Mary & Vann, Adam
Description: This report reviews past and proposed treatment of hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the principal federal statute for regulating the underground injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews current SDWA provisions for regulating underground injection activities, and discusses some possible implications of the enactment of legislation authorizing EPA to regulate hydraulic fracturing (beyond diesel) under this statute.
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Latin America: Energy Supply, Political Developments, and U.S. Policy Approaches

Latin America: Energy Supply, Political Developments, and U.S. Policy Approaches

Date: April 23, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, Mark P.; Rush, Rebecca G. & Ribando Seelke, Clare
Description: This report examines Latin America’s current political environment and its apparent effect on energy production in the region. It also discusses efforts to help many Latin American and Caribbean countries dependent on energy imports, including Venezuela’s preferential oil programs, the Mexico-led Meso-American Energy Integration Program, and U.S.-Brazilian cooperation on biofuels. The report also examines policy approaches that have been proposed for increased hemispheric energy cooperation, congressional interest in the topic of hemispheric energy security, and related legislative initiatives.
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Oil Industry Profits: Analysis of Recent Performance

Oil Industry Profits: Analysis of Recent Performance

Date: August 4, 2005
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report analyzes the profit performance of firms in the oil industry, evaluates factors that might have affected profitability in the oil industry, and examines the use of profits by the industry and the implications for the development of the oil market.
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Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS): Background and Debate Over a National Requirement

Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS): Background and Debate Over a National Requirement

Date: December 5, 2007
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: This report discusses the renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS), under which retail electricity suppliers (electric utilities) must provide a minimum amount of electricity from renewable energy resources or purchase tradable credits that represent an equivalent amount of renewable energy production. The minimum requirement is often set as a percentage share of retail electricity sales.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewable Energy Programs in the 2008 Farm Bill

Renewable Energy Programs in the 2008 Farm Bill

Date: August 13, 2010
Creator: Stubbs, Megan
Description: This report discuses the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, the 2008 farm bill) that extends and expands many of the renewable energy programs originally authorized in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002.
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Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill

Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill

Date: August 27, 2007
Creator: Zinn, Jeffrey A.
Description: This report introduces some of the issues that are influencing the development of a conservation title. It then reviews the contents of the House-passed bill, H.R. 2419. Some alternative proposals that the House considered are summarized in an appendix. The House-passed bill includes some elements of the alternative proposals (usually in modified form). This report is limited to the conservation title. However, conservation topics in recent farm bills have been increasingly addressed in other titles, and that trend continues with the House-passed version, which contains conservation provisions in the energy, forestry, and research titles, and others as well.
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The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets

Date: November 8, 2004
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report provides and analyzes basic information concerning the gas to liquids industry (GTL) industry to inform debate on broad energy legislation, as well as more specific natural gas legislation on supply issues including an Alaskan natural gas pipeline as well as LNG facility development.
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Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: July 20, 2006
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses the nuclear energy policy issues facing Congress, which include the implementation of federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, and security against terrorist attacks.
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Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate

Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate

Date: January 14, 2003
Creator: Bamberger, Robert L.
Description: This report discusses the energy policy. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597).
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Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues

Date: January 9, 2004
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress

Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: Sissine, Fred; Cunningham, Lynn J. & Gurevitz, Mark
Description: This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Most action in the second session is focused on the FY2009 budget request, the Farm Bill (H.R. 2419), and three bills (H.R. 6049, H.R. 5984/H.R. 3221 [S. 2821], and S. 2886) that would extend or modify selected renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector’s Energy Use

Energy-Water Nexus: The Water Sector’s Energy Use

Date: December 1, 2014
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Description: This report provides background on energy for facilities that treat and deliver water to end users and also dispose of and discharge wastewater. Energy use for water is a function of many variables, including water source (surface water pumping typically requires less energy than groundwater pumping), treatment (high ambient quality raw water requires less treatment than brackish or seawater), intended end-use, distribution (water pumped long distances requires more energy), amount of water loss in the system through leakage and evaporation, and level of wastewater treatment (stringency of water quality regulations to meet discharge standards).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department