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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the IAEA board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795670/
U.S. Natural Gas Exports and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement
On October 5, 2015, President Obama announced the conclusion of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a free trade agreement (FTA) among the United States and 11 other Asia-Pacific nations - Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. This report briefly discusses the agreement and its potential effects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795522/
Underground Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions about the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The questions are broadly representative of typical inquiries regarding the process and mechanics of storing CO2 underground, how much might be stored, and what might happen to CO2 once it is injected underground. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795569/
Extending NASA's Exemption from the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act
This report discusses the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA), which was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795592/
Electric Utility Regulatory Reform: Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses regulation issues affecting electricity today. Comprehensive electricity legislation may involve several components: Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) reform, PURPA's requirement that utilities purchase power from qualifying facilities (QFs), and reliability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795552/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report examines the background of Iran's nuclear policy, the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795531/
FY2016 Agriculture and Related Agencies Appropriations: In Brief
This report discusses the Agriculture appropriations bill, which funds the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), except for the Forest Service, as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and, in even-numbered fiscal years, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795673/
Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting
This report will discuss the disputes over Corps jurisdiction prior to enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 as well as the current law applicable to siting offshore wind facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795637/
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development
This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795872/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE): Authorizations of Appropriations Proposed by the Energy Policy Modernization Act of 2015 (S. 2012)
This report describes provisions in S. 2012, the Energy Policy Modernization Act of 2015, and analyzes the authorizations of appropriations for energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and activities in S. 2012, which was reported from the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee on September 9, 2015. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795888/
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Final Rule for 2014, 2015, and 2016
This report discusses the final rule for the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which was released by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). While the rule contains wide-ranging information, most stakeholders are primarily concerned with the annual volume amounts for total renewable fuel, advanced biofuel, cellulosic biofuel, and biomass-based diesel. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795884/
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis
This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, three research and development (R&D) initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795345/
DOT's Federal Pipeline Safety Program: Background and Key Issues for Congress
This report reviews the history of federal programs for pipeline safety, significant safety issues, and recent developments focusing on key issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795391/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
This report provides background on the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP), originally established in 1981 by Title XXVI of P.L. 97-35 and reauthorized several times. It is a block grant program under which the federal government gives states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories and commonwealths, and Indian tribal organizations (referred to as grantees) annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795374/
Cellulosic Biofuels: Analysis of Policy Issues for Congress
This report discusses Cellulosic biofuels, which are produced from cellulose derived from renewable biomass. They are thought by many to hold the key to increased benefits from renewable biofuels because they are made from low-cost, diverse, non-food feedstocks, and could also potentially decrease the fossil energy required to produce ethanol, resulting in lower greenhouse gas emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795369/
Doubling Research and Development for Clean Energy: "Mission Innovation"
This report briefly provides background for "Mission Innovation," a new initiative crafted by 20 countries to increase their public investment in research and development (R&D) in "clean energy" technologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795887/
Energy Policy Act of 2005: Summary and Analysis of Enacted Provisions
This report provides a section-by-section summary of the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Discussions of legislative background and policy implications are provided for bill titles and subtitles that address unified programs or policy areas. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795422/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 114th Congress
This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of the current status of energy tax policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795491/
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?
This report discusses Biomass energy, or bioenergy, which may receive more attention from stakeholders as an alternative to fossil fuels because of its potential to minimize the environmental impacts of energy production, provide energy security, and promote economic development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795439/
Nuclear Energy: Overview of Congressional Issues
This report discusses issues regarding the use of nuclear energy in light of the Fukushima Dai-ichi disaster. The report provides basic facts and statistics and then focuses specifically on major issues including safety, radioactive waste, policy, emergency response, and the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795907/
Mexico's Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States
This report provides an overview of Pemex and the content and prospects for Mexico's energy reforms. It then examines the U.S.-Mexico energy relationship through the lenses of trade and energy cooperation. It concludes by suggesting oversight issues for Congress related to what the enactment of energy reform might portend for Mexico's economic development, the U.S. energy matrix, and bilateral or North American energy cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795482/
Aiding Israel after the Iran Nuclear Deal: Issues for Congress
This report discusses recent indications from the Obama administration that the United States may provide Israel with additional military aid during the implementation of the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) with Iran. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795722/
Endangered Species Act (ESA) Issues Regarding Columbia Basin Salmon and Steelhead
The construction and operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) have reduced salmon and steelhead populations in the Columbia Basin. This report discusses the federal regulation of this system under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795745/
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report provides an overview of the rationale for the PGS mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles or boost-glide systems in support of this mission. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems, and summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795755/
The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the global nuclear detection architecture which is a complicated system of systems. This report addresses only the global nuclear detection architecture, not programs focusing on events prior or subsequent to the detection opportunity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795729/
The State Department's Final Decision on the Keystone XL Pipeline
This report briefly discusses the State Department's denial of TransCanada's request for a Presidential Permit for proposed pipeline facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795713/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795719/
Procedures for Congressional Action in Relation to a Nuclear Agreement with Iran: In Brief
This report provides, in brief, analysis of the congressional procedural provisions laid out in the Iran Nuclear Agreement Review Act of 2015 (P.L. 114-17). The act establishes a period for Congress to review any comprehensive agreement, during which certain presidential actions to provide relief from sanctions on Iran are barred. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770535/
Renewable Energy Policy in the 2008 Farm Bill
This report discusses the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, the 2008 farm bill) which extends and expands many of the renewable energy programs originally authorized in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171, 2002 farm bill). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770502/
Extending NASA's Exemption from the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act
This report discusses NASA's exemptions from the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA) as it relates to the International Space Station (ISS). It provides background information on the ISS and nonproliferation as well as INA origins and relation to the ISS. It also discusses amendments to the INA, current plans for the ISS, and related issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770500/
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): In Brief
This report provides a basic description of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates that U.S. transportation fuel must contain a minimum volume of biofuel, and is a federal statutory requirement. The mandated minimum volume increases annually and can be met using both conventional biofuel (e.g., cornstarch ethanol) and advanced biofuels. This report also includes some of the widely-discussed issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743488/
Biopower: Background and Federal Support
The report begins with general summaries about bioenergy and biopower, including potential benefits and challenges, feedstocks, and biopower technologies. It also describes federal support available for biopower and relevant legislative concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743409/
Powering Africa: Challenges of and U.S. Aid for Electrification in Africa
This report discusses the Power Africa initiative; policy problems and challenges related to power sector development in Africa; long-term perspectives on energy poverty, need, and future development; and raises some possible oversight questions and issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743408/
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer
This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743627/
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework
This report explains the nature of U.S. authority over offshore areas pursuant to international and domestic law, and describes the laws -- at both the state and federal levels -- governing the development of offshore oil and gas and related litigation. Additionally, it provides an outline of the changes to the regulating authorities by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, subsequent legislation and executive action, and a discussion of recent executive action and legislative proposals that would allow for further offshore exploration and production. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743533/
Renewable Energy Policy in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report discusses the renewable energy policy initiatives that have been included in almost every 2007 farm bill proposal in both the House and Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743540/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743527/
Mexico's Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States
This report provides an overview of Pemex and the content and prospects for Mexico's energy reforms, before discussing specific issues facing Mexico's oil and gas industry. It then examines the U.S.-Mexico energy relationship through the lenses of trade and energy cooperation. It concludes by suggesting several oversight issues for Congress related to what the enactment of energy reform might portend for Mexico's economic development, the U.S. energy matrix, and bilateral or North American energy cooperation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743528/
Presidential Permit Review for Cross-Border Pipelines and Electric Transmission
This report focuses on the Presidential Permit review processes for cross-border energy infrastructure as implemented by the Department of State, The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), and The Department of Energy (DOE). These permits have been required for the construction, connection, operation, and maintenance of certain facilities that cross the United States borders with Canada and Mexico. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743439/
The Global Nuclear Detection Architecture: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the global nuclear detection architecture: a multi-layered system of detection technologies, programs, and guidelines designed to enhance the nation's ability to detect and prevent a radiological or nuclear attack. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743417/
Selected Issues Related to an Expansion of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)
This report outlines some of the current supply issues facing biofuels industries, including implications for agricultural feedstocks, infrastructure concerns, energy supply for biofuels production, and fuel price uncertainties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743542/
Energy Provisions in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (P.L. 111-5)
This report discusses the energy appropriations in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA, P.L. 111-5). It includes background information, a summary of provisions, and detailed explanations of the relevant appropriations and tax provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743508/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles. It includes background information on various kinds of alternative fuels and issues, recend developments, and related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743393/
Speculation and Energy Prices: Legislative Responses
This report provides basic information and analysis on the issue of commodity speculation and summarizes the numerous legislative proposals for controlling excessive speculation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743544/
Hydropower: Federal and Nonfederal Investment
This report explains how the federal government is involved directly in hydropower generation at federal facilities and in the regulation of nonfederal hydropower generation; the focus is on current roles and processes and common concerns and questions about changing those roles. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700819/
Cars and Climate: What Can EPA Do to Control Greenhouse Gases from Mobile Sources?
This report discusses legislation being considered by congress to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that contribute to climate change. It discusses the EPA's authority under Title II and provides information regarding the mobile sources that might be regulated under this authority. Among these sources, motor vehicles (passenger cars and light trucks, including SUVs) are assumed to be the most likely initial targets for regulation, both because a petition addressing these sources began EPA's consideration of the endangerment issue, and because these are the most significant GHG emission sources among those covered by Title II. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700579/
Electric Power Transmission: Background and Policy Issues
This report discusses electric power transmission and related policy issues. Transmission is a prominent federal issue because of a perceived need to improve reliability and reduce costs, transmission's role in meeting national energy goals (such as increased use of renewable electricity), and the potential efficiency advantages of "smart grid" modernization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700834/
Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities
This report discusses the physical security at nuclear power plants. The physical security of nuclear power plants and their vulnerability to deliberate acts of terrorism was elevated to a national security concern following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Since the attacks, Congress has repeatedly focused oversight and legislative attention on nuclear power plant security requirements established and enforced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700745/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700615/
Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Tax Incentive Resources
This report contains a list of authoritative resources is designed to assist in responding to a broad range of constituent questions and concerns about renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700684/
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