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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR): Controversies for the 108th Congress
This report discusses one major element of the energy debate in the 108th Congress, which has been whether to approve energy development in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in northeastern Alaska, and if so, under what conditions, or whether to continue to prohibit development to protect the area's biological resources. The Refuge is an area rich in fauna, flora, and commercial oil potential. Current law forbids energy leasing in the Refuge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855939/
Appropriations for FY2004: Energy and Water Development
This report is a guide to one of the 13 regular appropriations bills that Congress considers each year, related to energy and water development. It is designed to supplement the information provided by the House and Senate Appropriations Subcommittees on Energy and Water Development. It summarizes the status of the bill, its scope, major issues, funding levels, and related congressional activity, and is updated as events warrant. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855946/
Energy Policy: The Continuing Debate and Omnibus Energy Legislation
This report discusses a variety of issues pertaining to energy policy. It includes information about most recent developments, background and analysis broken down into major categories, and relevant legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855732/
Automobile and Light Truck Fuel Economy: The CAFE Standards
This report discusses energy legislation pertaining to fuel standards. The current corporate average fuel economy standard (CAFE) is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for passenger automobiles and 20.7 mpg for light trucks (scheduled to increase to 22.2 mpg in model year [MY] 2007), a classification that also includes sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Congress had included language in the FY1996-FY2001 Transportation Appropriations prohibiting the use of appropriated funds for any rulemaking on CAFE, effectively freezing the standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855860/
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847620/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program: How are State Allotments Determined?
This report discusses the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), which is a block grant program under which the federal government provides states annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847550/
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847553/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Action has focused on legislation to increase funding for energy efficiency and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847714/
Renewable Energy Policy in the 2007 Farm Bill
This report provides a summary of major legislative proposals for change in the farm bill energy title (Title IX) and compares current law with energy provisions from the recently approved House 2007 farm bill. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847715/
Derivatives, Risk Management, and Policy in the Energy Markets
This report provides a systematic guide to understanding the use of financial derivative contracts in the energy industry, focusing specifically on the petroleum and natural gas sectors. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847726/
Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors
This report includes analyses of the potential effect of the tax credit for nuclear power provided by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and possible competitive effects of various proposals to limit greenhouse gas emissions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847730/
Energy Tax Policy: History and Current Issues
This report provides historical context regarding energy tax policy and discusses what may lie ahead. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847751/
Energy Policy: Conceptual Framework and Continuing Issues
This report discusses major policy approaches, provides a conceptual framework for categorizing energy policy proposals, and briefly describes energy issues that remain current in the debate after the enactment of EPACT. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847762/
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847770/
Alaska Natural Gas Pipelines: Interaction of the Natural Gas and Steel Markets
In 1976, Congress approved legislation to establish the regulatory framework for building a pipeline to bring natural gas from the Alaska North Slope to the lower 48 states. This report focuses on two major issues or uncertainties that may serve as economic constraints on a capital investment undertaking of this major scale. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847781/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Rising Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the rising oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847785/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP): Program and Funding
This report discusses Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP) funds for FY2006 and FY2007. It also discusses current issues and legislation related to LIHEAP. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847626/
Wind Energy: Offshore Permitting
This report discusses the disputes over Corps jurisdiction prior to enactment of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 as well as the current law applicable to siting offshore wind facilities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847655/
Nuclear Energy Policy
This report discusses the nuclear energy policy issues facing Congress that include the implementation of federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847668/
Navy Ship Propulsion Technologies: Options for Reducing Oil Use -- Background for Congress
This report provides background information on options for technologies that could reduce the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships, as well as four general strategies for reducing the Navy's dependence on oil for its ships: reducing energy use on Navy ships; alternative hydrocarbon fuels; nuclear propulsion; and sail and solar power. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847585/
Wave, Tidal, and In-Stream Energy Projects: Which Federal Agency Has the Lead?
This report describes wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technologies -- also referred to as hydrokinetic or marine energy. It discusses the recent changes in law aimed to clarify the federal role in ocean wave and renewable energy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847600/
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847502/
Gasoline Prices: Issues for the 110th Congress
This report discusses potential issues regarding gasoline prices for the 110th Congress. As prices continued to surge, the continuing crisis renewed attention on some issues that were dropped or compromised in the debate over P.L. 109-58, as well as to a number of initiatives to reduce the impact of high prices on consumers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847529/
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847535/
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
This report discusses various budget issues regarding the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency Program, which is conducted by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824706/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Background and Issues
The report begins with background on the geography and history of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). It also discusses the most common legislative issues, such as energy development, and provides an extensive review of the resources of the 1002 area, including the current status, regulations, and potential effects of development of those resources.A glossary is included to define the key terms and acronyms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824483/
Energy Tax Policy
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses recent energy tax proposals, focusing on the major energy tax provisions that were debated as part of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress (e.g., H.R. 6), which may be reintroduced in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824500/
Government Activities to Protect the Electric Grid
This report provides a description of initiatives within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Departments of Energy, Homeland Security, and Defense to protect the physical electrical utility infrastructure from outages caused by a range of activities including system operator errors, weather-related damage, and terrorist attacks. While the electric utility industry has primary responsibility, federal and state government agencies also have been addressing physical security concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824631/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues
This report discusses budget issues regarding renewable energy programs. In the 108th Congress, debate over renewable energy programs has focused on tax credits, incentives, budget, and provisions of the omnibus energy policy bill H.R. 6. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824505/
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
This report discusses policy options for Congress regarding gas prices. The high price of gasoline was an important consideration during the debate on major energy legislation, which ended with the Energy Policy Act of 2005, H.R. 6 (P.L. 109-58). However, prices continued to surge, due to a large number of factors, such as the effects of Hurricane Katrina on Gulf Coast refineries, an increased world demand for crude oil, and inadequate U.S. refinery capacity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824540/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues
This report provides background an analysis of renewably energy, its contribution to the national energy supply, role in the long-term energy supply, history, relevant provisions considered during the 109th Congress, relation to the Department of Energy (DOE) budget for FY2006, energy production, and relation to climate change. It also includes information about relevant legislation, Congressional hearings, reports, and documents, and other resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824551/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824557/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810477/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820945/
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822568/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
This report provides background on the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP), originally established in 1981 by Title XXVI of P.L. 97-35 and reauthorized several times. It is a block grant program under which the federal government gives states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories and commonwealths, and Indian tribal organizations (referred to as grantees) annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821133/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues
Renewable energy is derived from resources that are generally not depleted by human use, such as the sun, wind, and water movement. This report discusses various aspects of policy regarding renewable energy including tax credits and budget legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821108/
Energy Tax Incentives in the 108th Congress: A Comparison of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 6 and the Senate Finance Committee Amendment
This report discusses energy taxes incentives, which have long been an integral component of this nation’s energy policy. Efforts to significantly expand existing energy tax subsidies have been undertaken since the 106th Congress, but controversy over various non-tax energy policy provisions — corporate average fuel economy standards, the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, etc. — have helped stall the legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821400/
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations
This report uses the data compiled by World Resources Institute (WRI) to examine a pivotal and long-running issue surrounding U.S. climate change policy: the appropriate roles of developed and developing countries in addressing climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821138/
Latin America: Energy Supply, Political Developments, and U.S. Policy Approaches
This report examines Latin America’s current political environment and its apparent effect on energy production in the region. It also discusses efforts to help many Latin American and Caribbean countries dependent on energy imports, including Venezuela’s preferential oil programs, the Mexico-led Meso-American Energy Integration Program, and U.S.-Brazilian cooperation on biofuels. The report also examines policy approaches that have been proposed for increased hemispheric energy cooperation, congressional interest in the topic of hemispheric energy security, and related legislative initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820964/
Oil Industry Profits: Analysis of Recent Performance
This report analyzes the profit performance of firms in the oil industry, evaluates factors that might have affected profitability in the oil industry, and examines the use of profits by the industry and the implications for the development of the oil market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821629/
Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS): Background and Debate Over a National Requirement
This report discusses the renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS), under which retail electricity suppliers (electric utilities) must provide a minimum amount of electricity from renewable energy resources or purchase tradable credits that represent an equivalent amount of renewable energy production. The minimum requirement is often set as a percentage share of retail electricity sales. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821634/
Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill
This report introduces some of the issues that are influencing the development of a conservation title. It then reviews the contents of the House-passed bill, H.R. 2419. Some alternative proposals that the House considered are summarized in an appendix. The House-passed bill includes some elements of the alternative proposals (usually in modified form). This report is limited to the conservation title. However, conservation topics in recent farm bills have been increasingly addressed in other titles, and that trend continues with the House-passed version, which contains conservation provisions in the energy, forestry, and research titles, and others as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822483/
The Gas to Liquids Industry and Natural Gas Markets
This report provides and analyzes basic information concerning the gas to liquids industry (GTL) industry to inform debate on broad energy legislation, as well as more specific natural gas legislation on supply issues including an Alaskan natural gas pipeline as well as LNG facility development. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822721/
Nuclear Energy Policy
This report discusses the nuclear energy policy issues facing Congress, which include the implementation of federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, and security against terrorist attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821475/
Energy Policy: Setting the Stage for the Current Debate
This report discusses the energy policy. Comprehensive energy legislation was introduced in the Senate by both parties by late March (S. 388, S. 389, S. 596, S. 597). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821484/
Alternative Transportation Fuels and Vehicles: Energy, Environment, and Development Issues
This report reviews several issues relating to alternative fuels and vehicles, mainly to combat dependence on petroleum imports and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report discusses the advantages and drawbacks of various alternative fuels and vehicles, as well as related legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821459/
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Most action in the second session is focused on the FY2009 budget request, the Farm Bill (H.R. 2419), and three bills (H.R. 6049, H.R. 5984/H.R. 3221 [S. 2821], and S. 2886) that would extend or modify selected renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821471/
Iraq’s Trade with the World: Data and Analysis
This report provides detailed trade information and statistics on Iraq’s trade with the world from 2001 to 2003, highlighting its major trading partners. Data on U.S. trade with Iraq from 2002 to 2004 are also provided. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822434/
The Use of Profit by the Five Major Oil Companies
The five major integrated oil companies operating in the U.S. market have earned net incomes totaling $308 billion since 2004. This report analyzes the uses of accrued profits by the five major integrated oil companies from 2004 through 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821550/
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