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 Resource Type: Report
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Natural Gas for Cars and Trucks: Options and Challenges

Natural Gas for Cars and Trucks: Options and Challenges

Date: November 19, 2014
Creator: Canis, Bill; Pirog, Robert & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: The increase in domestic supplies of natural gas has raised new interest in expanding its use in the transportation sector. This report considers issues related to wider use of natural gas as a fuel in passenger cars and commercial vehicles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: May 27, 2010
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
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An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions

An Overview of Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas: Resources and Federal Actions

Date: November 21, 2014
Creator: Ratner, Michael & Tiemann, Mary
Description: This report focuses on the growth in U.S. oil and natural gas production driven primarily by tight oil formations and shale gas formations. It also reviews selected federal environmental regulatory and research initiatives related to unconventional oil and gas extraction, including the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposed hydraulic fracturing rule and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) actions.
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Keeping America's Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress

Keeping America's Pipelines Safe and Secure: Key Issues for Congress

Date: December 13, 2010
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.
Description: This report discusses new legislation being considered by the 111th Congress to improve the safety and security of the U.S. pipeline network. H.R. 6008 would require pipeline operators to provide immediate telephonic notice of a pipeline release to federal emergency response officials and would increase civil penalties for pipeline safety violations. S. 3824 would increase the number of federal pipeline safety inspectors, would require automatic shutoff valves for natural gas pipelines, and would mandate internal inspections of transmission pipelines, among other provisions
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewable Energy Programs and the Farm Bill: Status and Issues

Renewable Energy Programs and the Farm Bill: Status and Issues

Date: December 8, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report discusses the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, the 2008 farm bill) which extends and expands many of the renewable energy programs originally authorized in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002 (P.L. 107-171, 2002 farm bill). The bill also continues the emphasis on the research and development of advanced and cellulosic bioenergy authorized in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (P.L. 110-140).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Lands and Natural Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 113th Congress

Federal Lands and Natural Resources: Overview and Selected Issues for the 113th Congress

Date: December 8, 2014
Creator: Hoover, Katie
Description: This report introduces some of the broad themes and issues Congress considers when addressing federal land policy and resource management. Federal land policy includes questions about the extent and location of the federal estate.
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China and the United States--A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

China and the United States--A Comparison of Green Energy Programs and Policies

Date: June 14, 2010
Creator: Campbell, Richard J.
Description: This report will look at the laws, programs, and policies encouraging development of wind, solar, and biomass power in China and the United States as the major renewable energy technologies common to both countries. While hydropower is the most developed source of renewable energy in both China and the United States, additional development of conventional hydropower is not a major focus of U.S. or China's renewable energy policy and will not be featured in this discussion.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D

Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D

Date: October 10, 2014
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: This report provides a cumulative history of Department of Energy (DOE) funding for renewable energy compared with funding for the other energy technologies--nuclear energy, fossil energy, and energy efficiency. Specifically, it provides a comparison that covers cumulative funding over the past 10 years (FY2005-FY2014), a second comparison that covers the 37-year period since DOE was established at the beginning of fiscal year 1978 (FY1978-FY2014), and a third comparison that covers a 67-year funding history (FY1948-FY2014) for DOE and predecessor agencies.
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EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: Congressional Responses and Options

EPA Regulation of Greenhouse Gases: Congressional Responses and Options

Date: June 8, 2010
Creator: McCarthy, James E. & Parker, Larry
Description: This report discusses elements of the greenhouse gas (GHG) controversy, providing background on stationary sources of GHG pollution and identifying options Congress has at its disposal to address GHG issues, including: (1) resolutions of disapproval under the Congressional Review Act; (2) freestanding legislation; (3) the use of appropriations bills as a vehicle to influence EPA activity; and (4) amendments to the Clean Air Act, including legislation to establish a new GHG control regime.
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Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues

Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues

Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report focuses specifically on the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS). It describes the general nature of the biofuels RFS and its implementation, and outlines some of the emerging issues related to the sustainability of the continued growth in U.S. biofuels production needed to fulfill the expanding RFS mandate, as well as the emergence of potential unintended consequences of this rapid expansion. This report does not address the broader public policy issue of how best to support U.S. energy policy.
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Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: October 16, 2014
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Global Natural Gas: A Growing Resource

Global Natural Gas: A Growing Resource

Date: December 22, 2010
Creator: Ratner, Michael
Description: The role of natural gas in the U.S. economy is expected to be a major part of the debate over energy policy in the 112th Congress. This report briefly explains key aspects of global natural gas markets, including supply and demand, as well as major U.S. developments.
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Keystone XL Pipeline: Overview and Recent Developments

Keystone XL Pipeline: Overview and Recent Developments

Date: November 13, 2014
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Luther, Linda; Lattanzio, Richard K.; Ramseur, Jonathan L.; Vann, Adam; Pirog, Robert et al.
Description: This report describes the Keystone XL Pipeline Project and the process that the State Department must complete to decide whether it will approve or deny TransCanada's permit application. The report also discusses key energy security, economic, and environmental issues relevant to the State Department's national interest determination. Some of these issues include perspectives among various stakeholders both in favor of and opposed to the construction of the pipeline. Finally, the report discusses the constitutional basis for the State Department's authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents' possible challenges to this authority.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)

Waiver Authority Under the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS)

Date: August 20, 2010
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides a brief overview of the renewable fuel standard (RFS) program and discusses the process and criteria for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to approve a waiver petition. The RFS program required that renewable fuels be blended into gasoline and other transportation fuels.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Regulating Coal Combustion Waste Disposal: Issues for Congress

Regulating Coal Combustion Waste Disposal: Issues for Congress

Date: September 21, 2010
Creator: Luther, Linda
Description: This report provides an overview of the current rulemaking for Coal combustion waste (CCW) and relevant background information that applies to that rulemaking. In particular, the report describes the nature of the waste itself and primary methods of managing it; discusses potential risks associated with its mismanagement, particularly as supported by new data EPA has gathered to support the proposed rulemaking; and provides an overview of EPA's current regulatory proposal.
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Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

Date: August 23, 2010
Creator: Holt, Mark & Andrews, Anthony
Description: This report discusses the physical security at nuclear power plants. The physical security of nuclear power plants and their vulnerability to deliberate acts of terrorism was elevated to a national security concern following the attacks of September 11, 2001. Since the attacks, Congress has repeatedly focused oversight and legislative attention on nuclear power plant security requirements established and enforced by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Gas Hydrates: Resource and Hazard

Gas Hydrates: Resource and Hazard

Date: May 25, 2010
Creator: Folger, Peter
Description: This report discusses gas hydrates, which are potentially huge resource of natural gas for the United States. The U.S. Geological Survey estimated that there are about 85 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of technically recoverable gas hydrates in northern Alaska. The Minerals Management Service estimated a mean value of 21,000 TCF of in-place gas hydrates in the Gulf of Mexico. By comparison, total U.S. natural gas consumption is about 23 TCF annually. Gas hydrates are both a potential resource and a risk, representing a significant hazard to conventional oil and gas drilling and production operations, and to date gas hydrates have no confirmed commercial production.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Mexico's Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States

Mexico's Oil and Gas Sector: Background, Reform Efforts, and Implications for the United States

Date: October 23, 2014
Creator: Seelke, Clare Ribando; Ratner, Michael; Villarreal, M. A. & Hagerty, Curry L.
Description: This report provides an overview of Pemex and the content and prospects for Mexico's energy reforms, before discussing specific issues facing Mexico's oil and gas industry. It then examines the U.S.-Mexico energy relationship through the lenses of trade and energy cooperation. It concludes by suggesting several oversight issues for Congress related to what the enactment of energy reform might portend for Mexico's economic development, the U.S. energy matrix, and bilateral or North American energy cooperation.
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U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: May 28, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran.
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Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Rare Earth Elements: The Global Supply Chain

Date: July 28, 2010
Creator: Humphries, Marc
Description: This report provides a discussion on the major issues and concerns of the global supply chain for rare earth elements, their major end uses, and legislative and other policy proposals that Congress may consider to improve the U.S. rare earth position.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: December 23, 2010
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D
Description: High levels of oil imports and high crude oil and gasoline prices in recent years have led to increased interest in the U.S. fuel supply. Recent congressional interest has focused on alternatives to petroleum, ways to improve the efficiency of the U.S. transportation sector, and ways to improve the stability and security of the petroleum supply and refining sectors. Key components of federal policies to reduce petroleum consumption include the promotion of alternatives to petroleum fuels and the promotion of more efficient vehicles. This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles.
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Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Date: August 16, 2010
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi; Lattanzio, Richard K. & Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects.
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Nuclear Energy Cooperation with Foreign Countries: Issues for Congress

Nuclear Energy Cooperation with Foreign Countries: Issues for Congress

Date: December 8, 2014
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.; Nikitin, Mary Beth D. & Holt, Mark
Description: This report begins with a brief overview of the global nuclear power industry, including the possessors of enrichment and reprocessing technology. It then describes the state of the U.S. nuclear industry, particularly its dependence on both international trade and foreign suppliers. The report then reviews the multilateral nuclear nonproliferation mechanisms. It concludes with a detailed summary of U.S. nuclear cooperation agreements, the primary mechanism by which the United States both promotes U.S. nuclear commerce and ensures that such commerce does not contribute to clandestine nuclear weapons programs.
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Cuba's Offshore Oil Development: Background and U.S. Policy Considerations

Cuba's Offshore Oil Development: Background and U.S. Policy Considerations

Date: November 29, 2010
Creator: Nerurkar, Neelesh
Description: This report first examines Cuba's oil sector, including current production and consumption levels. It then looks at Cuba's offshore development, including the Repsol project, other offshore projects involving state-owed foreign oil companies, and the outlook for Cuba's offshore oil production. The report then analyzes considerations for the United States raised by Cuba's offshore oil development, examining oil spill risks and environmental dangers if spilled oil reaches U.S. waters, the status of disaster coordination between the United States and Cuba, and potential approaches on the issue. The report then examines the debate over broader U.S. involvement in Cuba's offshore oil development, and touches on two outstanding boundary issues related to Cuba's offshore oil development. Finally, the report examines legislative initiatives that reflect two contrasting policy approaches toward Cuba's offshore oil development - one would authorize U.S. investment in the sector, and the other would not affect current prohibitions on U.S. firms' economic dealings with Cuba and would impose sanctions on foreign companies and individuals who support the development of Cuba's petroleum resources.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department