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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Biofuels Incentives: A Summary of Federal Programs
This report outlines federal programs that provide direct or indirect incentives for biofuels. For each program described, the report provides details including administering agency, authorizing statute(s), annual funding, and expiration date. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847502/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847505/
U.S. Crude Oil Exports to International Destinations
This report discusses the export of crude oil produced in the United States and policy considerations in the wake of a provision contained in P.L. 114-113 which repealed a 40-year prohibition on the export. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847517/
Gasoline Prices: Issues for the 110th Congress
This report discusses potential issues regarding gasoline prices for the 110th Congress. As prices continued to surge, the continuing crisis renewed attention on some issues that were dropped or compromised in the debate over P.L. 109-58, as well as to a number of initiatives to reduce the impact of high prices on consumers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847529/
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847535/
The Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Waiver Authority and Modification of Volumes
This report discusses the process and criteria for the Environmental Protection Agency to waive various portions of the renewable fuel standard (RFS), and the modification of applicable volumes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824757/
Congress and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2016
This report briefly discusses authorization legislation for the water resources activities of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) in 2016, which the 114th Congress is anticipated to consider. These issues span the agency's role in new and existing navigation improvements, coastal and riverine flood risk reduction, and environmental restoration and protection efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824765/
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices
This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824766/
Electric Grid Physical Security: Recent Legislation
This report briefly discusses legislative initiatives to address the physical safety of electrical transformers and 0other parts of the U.S. electric grid which are vulnerable to damage from theft, vandalism, or terrorist attacks. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824781/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824806/
Ocean Energy Agency Appropriations, FY2016
This report discusses FY2016 appropriations for the Department of the Interior's (DOI's) Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), and Office of Natural Resources Revenue (ONRR)--the three agencies that collectively administer federal ocean energy resources covering more than 1.7 billion acres on the U.S. outer continental shelf (OCS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824669/
Is Biopower Carbon Neutral?
This report discusses biomass energy, or bioenergy, which may receive more attention from stakeholders as an alternative to fossil fuels because of its potential to minimize the environmental impacts of energy production, provide energy security, and promote economic development. The report discusses some factors taken into account when considering whether biopower is carbon neutral. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824675/
Energy Efficiency: Budget, Oil Conservation, and Electricity Conservation Issues
This report discusses various budget issues regarding the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency Program, which is conducted by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824706/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824576/
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: Background and Issues
The report begins with background on the geography and history of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). It also discusses the most common legislative issues, such as energy development, and provides an extensive review of the resources of the 1002 area, including the current status, regulations, and potential effects of development of those resources.A glossary is included to define the key terms and acronyms. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824483/
Energy Tax Policy
This report discusses the history, current posture, and outlook for federal energy tax policy. It also discusses recent energy tax proposals, focusing on the major energy tax provisions that were debated as part of omnibus energy legislation in the 108th Congress (e.g., H.R. 6), which may be reintroduced in the 109th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824500/
Government Activities to Protect the Electric Grid
This report provides a description of initiatives within the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the Departments of Energy, Homeland Security, and Defense to protect the physical electrical utility infrastructure from outages caused by a range of activities including system operator errors, weather-related damage, and terrorist attacks. While the electric utility industry has primary responsibility, federal and state government agencies also have been addressing physical security concerns. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824631/
Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues
This report provides an overview of the rationale for the prompt global strike (PGS) mission and the possible deployment of conventional warheads on long-range ballistic missiles or boost-glide systems in support of this mission. It then reviews the Air Force and Navy efforts to develop these systems. It summarizes congressional reaction to these proposals, then provides a more detailed account of the issues raised by these concepts and programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824655/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues
This report discusses budget issues regarding renewable energy programs. In the 108th Congress, debate over renewable energy programs has focused on tax credits, incentives, budget, and provisions of the omnibus energy policy bill H.R. 6. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824505/
Gasoline Prices: New Legislation and Proposals
This report discusses policy options for Congress regarding gas prices. The high price of gasoline was an important consideration during the debate on major energy legislation, which ended with the Energy Policy Act of 2005, H.R. 6 (P.L. 109-58). However, prices continued to surge, due to a large number of factors, such as the effects of Hurricane Katrina on Gulf Coast refineries, an increased world demand for crude oil, and inadequate U.S. refinery capacity. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824540/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues
This report provides background an analysis of renewably energy, its contribution to the national energy supply, role in the long-term energy supply, history, relevant provisions considered during the 109th Congress, relation to the Department of Energy (DOE) budget for FY2006, energy production, and relation to climate change. It also includes information about relevant legislation, Congressional hearings, reports, and documents, and other resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824551/
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress
This report discusses the increasing attention being paid to alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles, the proponents of which point to their potential to improve urban air quality, decrease dependence on foreign oil, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The report also discusses the major barriers currently preventing widespread use of such technologies, and discusses these technologies in the particular contexts of the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricanes and the Energy Policy Act of 2005. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824557/
DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE): A Primer, with Appropriations for FY2016
This report discusses the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE), which is tasked with the lead role to address electric infrastructure needs and issues, such as: increased use of distributed (mostly renewable energy) resources, Internet-enabled demand response technologies, growing loads from electric vehicle use, continued expansion of natural gas use, and integration of energy storage devices. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824439/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824450/
Energy Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (P.L. 113-79)
This report focuses on the policies contained in the 2014 farm bill that support agriculture based renewable energy, especially biofuels. The introductory sections of this report briefly describe how U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) bioenergy policies evolved and how they fit into the larger context of U.S. biofuels policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821705/
Issues Affecting Tidal, Wave, and In-Stream Generation Projects
This report provides an overview of developments and considerations regarding wave, tidal, and in-stream energy generation technology. It summarizes federal involvement in the regulation of this new industry and highlights current issues in the field. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822568/
Solar Projects: DOE Section 1705 Loan Guarantees
This report discusses the solar energy initiative and the political implications. The objective of this report is to provide Congress with insight regarding solar projects supported by Department of Energy (DOE’s) loan guarantee program, the risk characteristics of these projects, and how other DOE loan guarantee projects are either similar to or different from the Solyndra solar manufacturing project. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822580/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress
The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of energy tax policy as it stands at the start of the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820866/
Energy Tax Policy: Issues in the 112th Congress
The economic rationale for interventions in energy markets helps inform the debate surrounding energy tax policy. This report begins by providing background on the economic rationale for energy market interventions, highlighting various market failures. After identifying possible market failures in the production and consumption of energy, possible interventions are discussed. The report concludes with an analysis of the current status of energy tax policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc815301/
Energy Policy: 112th Congress Issues and Legislative Proposals
This report discusses the energy policy in the United States, which has focused on three major goals: assuring a secure supply of energy, keeping energy costs low, and protecting the environment. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822657/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc810477/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc812958/
Greenhouse Gas Emission Drivers: Population, Economic Development and Growth, and Energy Use
The interactions of three variables underlie debates on the issue of climate change and what responses might be justified: the magnitude and rates of change of (1) population growth, (2) incomes, and (3) intensity of greenhouse gas emissions relative to economic activities. This report examines the interrelationships of the variables to explore their implications for policies that address climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820945/
Latin America: Energy Supply, Political Developments, and U.S. Policy Approaches
This report examines Latin America’s current political environment and its apparent effect on energy production in the region. It also discusses efforts to help many Latin American and Caribbean countries dependent on energy imports, including Venezuela’s preferential oil programs, the Mexico-led Meso-American Energy Integration Program, and U.S.-Brazilian cooperation on biofuels. The report also examines policy approaches that have been proposed for increased hemispheric energy cooperation, congressional interest in the topic of hemispheric energy security, and related legislative initiatives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820964/
Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Perspective on the Top 20 Emitters and Developed Versus Developing Nations
This report uses the data compiled by World Resources Institute (WRI) to examine a pivotal and long-running issue surrounding U.S. climate change policy: the appropriate roles of developed and developing countries in addressing climate change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821138/
Keystone XL Pipeline Project: Key Issues
This report describes the Keystone XL pipeline project, as proposed by TransCanada in its May 4, 2012, Presidential Permit application, and the process and procedures that the State Department is obligated to complete in processing that permit application. It also summarizes issues that arose during the 2008 permit application process, particularly those that may affect the current permit application. This report also summarizes key arguments that have been raised, both for and against the pipeline, by the pipeline’s developers, state and federal agencies, environmental groups, and other stakeholders. Finally, the report reviews the constitutional basis for the State Department’s authority to issue a Presidential Permit, and opponents’ possible challenges to this authority. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821057/
Hydraulic Fracturing and Safe Drinking Water Act Regulatory Issues
This report reviews past and proposed treatment of hydraulic fracturing under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), the principal federal statute for regulating the underground injection of fluids to protect groundwater sources of drinking water. It reviews current SDWA provisions for regulating underground injection activities, and discusses some possible implications of the enactment of legislation authorizing EPA to regulate hydraulic fracturing (beyond diesel) under this statute. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821061/
The Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
This report provides background on the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance program (LIHEAP), originally established in 1981 by Title XXVI of P.L. 97-35 and reauthorized several times. It is a block grant program under which the federal government gives states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories and commonwealths, and Indian tribal organizations (referred to as grantees) annual grants to operate multi-component home energy assistance programs for needy households. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821133/
Renewable Energy: Tax Credit, Budget, and Electricity Production Issues
Renewable energy is derived from resources that are generally not depleted by human use, such as the sun, wind, and water movement. This report discusses various aspects of policy regarding renewable energy including tax credits and budget legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821108/
Energy Tax Incentives in the 108th Congress: A Comparison of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 6 and the Senate Finance Committee Amendment
This report discusses energy taxes incentives, which have long been an integral component of this nation’s energy policy. Efforts to significantly expand existing energy tax subsidies have been undertaken since the 106th Congress, but controversy over various non-tax energy policy provisions — corporate average fuel economy standards, the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, etc. — have helped stall the legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821400/
Oil Industry Profits: Analysis of Recent Performance
This report analyzes the profit performance of firms in the oil industry, evaluates factors that might have affected profitability in the oil industry, and examines the use of profits by the industry and the implications for the development of the oil market. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821629/
Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS): Background and Debate Over a National Requirement
This report discusses the renewable energy portfolio standard (RPS), under which retail electricity suppliers (electric utilities) must provide a minimum amount of electricity from renewable energy resources or purchase tradable credits that represent an equivalent amount of renewable energy production. The minimum requirement is often set as a percentage share of retail electricity sales. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821634/
Renewable Energy Programs in the 2008 Farm Bill
This report discuses the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, the 2008 farm bill) that extends and expands many of the renewable energy programs originally authorized in the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821131/
Conservation and the 2007 Farm Bill
This report introduces some of the issues that are influencing the development of a conservation title. It then reviews the contents of the House-passed bill, H.R. 2419. Some alternative proposals that the House considered are summarized in an appendix. The House-passed bill includes some elements of the alternative proposals (usually in modified form). This report is limited to the conservation title. However, conservation topics in recent farm bills have been increasingly addressed in other titles, and that trend continues with the House-passed version, which contains conservation provisions in the energy, forestry, and research titles, and others as well. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822483/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Tehran's Compliance with International Obligations
This report provides a brief overview of Iran's nuclear program and describes the legal basis for the actions taken by the IAEA board and the Security Council. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795670/
U.S. Natural Gas Exports and the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) Agreement
On October 5, 2015, President Obama announced the conclusion of negotiations for the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), a free trade agreement (FTA) among the United States and 11 other Asia-Pacific nations - Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. This report briefly discusses the agreement and its potential effects. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795522/
Underground Carbon Dioxide Sequestration: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions about the geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2). The questions are broadly representative of typical inquiries regarding the process and mechanics of storing CO2 underground, how much might be stored, and what might happen to CO2 once it is injected underground. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795569/
Extending NASA's Exemption from the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act
This report discusses the Iran Nonproliferation Act of 2000 (INA), which was enacted to help stop foreign transfers to Iran of weapons of mass destruction, missile technology, and advanced conventional weapons technology, particularly from Russia. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795592/
Electric Utility Regulatory Reform: Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses regulation issues affecting electricity today. Comprehensive electricity legislation may involve several components: Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) reform, PURPA's requirement that utilities purchase power from qualifying facilities (QFs), and reliability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795552/
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status
This report examines the background of Iran's nuclear policy, the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795531/