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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Year: 2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Sissine, Fred & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: Federal policymakers are debating a range of potential initiatives for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from U.S. energy sources. An overarching policy issue which arises from carbon control proposals is how the CO2 reduction targets could be achieved. One method that has garnered significant attention is increasing the electricity efficiency in buildings. Analysts have identified a number of critical socioeconomic and policy barriers which have historically limited the impact of federal and state building efficiency programs. This report describes those barriers, the degree to which federal law has addressed them, and their implications for meeting future U.S. carbon reduction targets.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

The Iran Sanctions Act (ISA)

Date: June 4, 2009
Creator: Katzman, Kenneth
Description: This report discusses the increasing international pressure on Iran to curb its nuclear program and how that pressure discourages foreign firms from investing in Iran's energy sector, hindering Iran's efforts to expand oil production. This report discusses the history and progress of the formal U.S. effort to curb energy investment in Iran, which began with the Iran Sanctions Act (ISA) in 1996. This report also discusses U.S. concerns that other nations, e.g., U.S. allies, Russia, and China, are not as strict with their economic sanctions against Iran, and how U.S. policymakers are combating this reticence with various pieces of legislation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

Managing the Nuclear Fuel Cycle: Policy Implications of Expanding Global Access to Nuclear Power

Date: July 1, 2009
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth; Andrews, Anthony & Holt, Mark
Description: After several decades of widespread stagnation, nuclear power is attracting renewed interest. Expanding global access to nuclear power has the potential to lead to the spread of nuclear technology that could be used for nuclear weapons. This report discusses the issue of nuclear power with regard to nuclear weapons nonproliferation policies, the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) begun under the Bush Administration, the future of the GNEP under the Obama Administration, and four areas of oversight in which Congress will have a considerable role.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

Date: June 30, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: Some policymakers have concluded that the energy challenges facing the United States are so critical that a concentrated investment in energy research and development (R&D) should be undertaken. The Manhattan project, which produced the atomic bomb, and the Apollo program, which landed American men on the moon, have been cited as examples of the success such R&D investments can yield. Investment in federal energy technology R&D programs of the 1970s, in response to two energy crises, have generally been viewed as less successful than the earlier two efforts. This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, the three initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Date: June 25, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Bracmort, Kelsi S.
Description: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005. EISA requires an increasing amount of the 36 billion gallons of renewable fuel by 2022 mandate be met with "advanced biofuels." This report defines the classification "biofuels," discusses the ongoing debate regarding several aspects of biofuels endeavors, and discusses related legislative efforts on climate change policy and low-carbon fuel standards.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Federal Tort Claims Act

Federal Tort Claims Act

Date: April 27, 2009
Creator: Cohen, Henry & Cohen, Henry
Description: The Federal Tort Claims Act is the statute by which the United States authorizes tort suits to be brought against itself. With exceptions, it makes the United States liable for injuries caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of any federal employee acting within the scope of his employment, in accordance with the law of the state where the act or omission occurred. This report discusses, among other things, the application of the Feres doctrine to suits for injuries caused by medical malpractice in the military, the prohibition of suits by victims of atomic testing, Supreme Court cases interpreting the discretionary function exception, the extent to which federal employees may be held liable for torts they commit in the scope of their employment, and the government contractor defense to products liability design defect suits.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Andrews, Anthony
Description: This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing the legislation and orders, Defense spending on facility energy over the last decade, annual Defense appropriations that fund energy-conservation improvements, and Defense energy conservation investments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: February 13, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

Date: March 18, 2009
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Description: This report offers an overview of energy markets, supplies and prices. It also provides figures regarding the energy consumption in United States since 1950s.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Energy Efficiency in Buildings: Critical Barriers and Congressional Policy

Date: June 24, 2009
Creator: Parfomak, Paul W.; Sissine, Fred & Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report focuses on electricity efficiency in buildings. It also discusses improved energy efficiency in transportation (to and from buildings), reducing direct use of fossil fuels in buildings, and reducing energy use or carbon emissions associated with building materials and construction (e.g., steel and concrete).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Calculation of Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions for the Renewable Fuel Standard

Date: June 25, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D. & Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA, P.L. 110-140), significantly expanded the renewable fuel standard (RFS) established in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005, P.L. 109-58). The RFS requires the use of 9.0 billion gallons of renewable fuel in 2008, increasing to 36 billion gallons in 2022.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

The Manhattan Project, the Apollo Program, and Federal Energy Technology R&D Programs: A Comparative Analysis

Date: February 4, 2009
Creator: Stine, Deborah D.
Description: This report compares and contrasts the goals of, and the investments in, the three initiatives, which may provide useful insights for Congress as it assesses and debates the nation's energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction

Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction

Date: September 16, 2009
Creator: Gorte, Ross W.
Description: This report examines wildfire biomass fuels. It begins with a discussion of fuel characteristics and their relation to wildfire intensity and spread. This is followed with a description of actions proposed to reduce biomass fuel levels, their effectiveness for protecting property and resources from wildfires, and their impacts on other resource values. It concludes with an examination of the federal authorities for fuel reduction activities on federal and non-federal lands, together with data on the funding provided under each of these authorities.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress

Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Legislation in the 110th Congress

Date: September 29, 2009
Creator: Sissine, Fred; Cunningham, Lynn J. & Gurevitz, Mark
Description: This report reviews the status of energy efficiency and renewable energy legislation introduced during the 110th Congress. Most action in the second session is focused on the FY2009 budget request and legislation that would extend or modify selected renewable energy and energy efficiency tax incentives.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: April 15, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: November 13, 2009
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade balance.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

Date: February 19, 2009
Creator: Andrews, Anthony
Description: This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing the legislation and orders, Defense spending on facility energy over the last decade, annual Defense appropriations that fund energy-conservation improvements, and Defense energy conservation investments.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: January 27, 2009
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Issues in Green Building and the Federal Response: An Introduction

Issues in Green Building and the Federal Response: An Introduction

Date: January 16, 2009
Creator: Fischer, Eric A.
Description: This report discusses what the concept of green building means, major federal policies and programs relating to green building, and associated issues, including some that may confront the 111th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

U.S. Energy: Overview and Selected Facts and Numbers

Date: February 3, 2009
Creator: Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Description: This report provides an overview of aggregate energy consumption, and presents detailed analysis of trends and statistics regarding specific energy sources: oil, electricity, natural gas, coal and renewable energy. A section on trends in energy efficiency is also presented.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: July 21, 2009
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Nuclear Cooperation with Other Countries: A Primer

Date: March 9, 2009
Creator: Kerr, Paul K. & Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: This report discusses section 123 of the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the specific requirements of which must be met in order for the United States to engage in civilian nuclear cooperation with other states. The AEA also provides for exemptions to these requirements, export control licensing procedures, and criteria for terminating cooperation.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

Iran's Nuclear Program: Status

Date: December 29, 2009
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.
Description: This report looks at the background of Iran's nuclear policy. It covers the current status of Iran's nuclear facilities, and current controversy surrounding them, as well as the effects of international sanctions on Iran, recent sabotages on the Iran Enrichment Program, an estimated timeline of Iran's nuclear weapon capabilities, and whether or not Iran even has a nuclear weapons program.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Fossil Fuel Resources: Terminology, Reporting, and Summary

U.S. Fossil Fuel Resources: Terminology, Reporting, and Summary

Date: October 28, 2009
Creator: Whitney, Gene; Behrens, Carl E. & Glover, Carol
Description: This report describes the characteristics of fossil fuels that make it necessary to use precise terminology (oil, natural gas, and coal), summarizes the major terms and their meanings, and provides a brief summary of U.S. endowment of fossil fuels and the relationship between the U.S. fossil fuel energy endowment and those of other nations.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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