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 Decade: 2010-2019
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 111th Congress

Biomass: Comparison of Definitions in Legislation Through the 111th Congress

Date: October 28, 2010
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi & Gorte, Ross W.
Description: This report discusses the use of biomass as an energy feedstock, which is emerging as a potentially viable alternative to address U.S. energy security concerns, foreign oil dependence, rural economic development, and diminishing sources of conventional energy. Biomass (organic matter that can be converted into energy) may include food crops, crops for energy (e.g., switchgrass or prairie perennials), crop residues, wood waste and byproducts, and animal manure. This report discusses legislation regarding biomass, the evolving definition of biomass, and the positions of supporters and detractors of biomass as an alternative energy source.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Federal Government's Role in Electric Transmission Facility Siting

The Federal Government's Role in Electric Transmission Facility Siting

Date: October 28, 2010
Creator: Vann, Adam
Description: This report looks at the history of transmission siting and the reason behind the movement toward an increased federal role in siting decisions, explains the new federal role in transmission siting pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and discusses legal issues related to this and any potential future expansions of the federal role.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Intermediate-Level Blends of Ethanol in Gasoline, and the Ethanol "Blend Wall"

Intermediate-Level Blends of Ethanol in Gasoline, and the Ethanol "Blend Wall"

Date: October 18, 2010
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report discusses the growing interest in the potential for ethanol to displace petroleum as a transportation fuel, as well as related issues, including current Clean Air Act (CAA) limitation on ethanol content in gasoline; the requests of ethanol producers for an increase of this limitation; and the effects the limitation has upon vehicle and engine warranties and the infrastructures of the automobile and fuel industries.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: October 15, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened concerns about the region's future. Issues such as Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Agriculture-Based Biofuels: Overview and Emerging Issues

Agriculture-Based Biofuels: Overview and Emerging Issues

Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy
Description: This report reviews the evolution of the U.S. biofuels sector and the role that federal policy has played in shaping its development. In addition, it highlights emerging issues that are critical to the biofuels sector and of relevance to Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Surface Transportation Funding and Finance

Surface Transportation Funding and Finance

Date: November 10, 2010
Creator: Fischer, John W; Kirk, Robert S. & Mallett, William J.
Description: This report discusses changes in funding to the national surface transportation infrastructure, especially in light of the recession that began in 2007, which led to decreases in driving and fuel use. This report focuses on possible revenue sources for surface transportation infrastructure. It begins with a brief discussion of the problems associated with the trust fund financing system and then explores possible immediate and longer-term solutions to the financing problem.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Oil Refining Industry: Background in Changing Markets and Fuel Policies

The U.S. Oil Refining Industry: Background in Changing Markets and Fuel Policies

Date: October 29, 2010
Creator: Andrews, Anthony & Pirog, Robert
Description: This report begins by looking at the current production capacity of the oil refineries operating in the United States, and the sources and changes in crude oil supply. It then examines the changing characteristics of petroleum and petroleum product markets and identifies the effects of these changes on the refining industry. The report concludes with discussion of the policy and regulatory factors that are likely to affect the structure and performance of the industry during the next decade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Russian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation Agreement: Issues for Congress

Date: September 17, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth
Description: The United States and Russia signed a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement on May 6, 2008. President Bush submitted the agreement to Congress on May 13. This report discusses key policy issues related to that agreement, including future nuclear energy cooperation with Russia, U.S.-Russian bilateral relations, nonproliferation cooperation and Russia's policies toward Iran.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Winter Fuels Outlook 2010-2011

Winter Fuels Outlook 2010-2011

Date: October 29, 2010
Creator: Pirog, Robert
Description: This report discusses findings gleaned through the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) publication titled Short-Term Energy and Winter Fuels Outlook (STEWFO) for the 2010-2011 winter heating season. STEWFO projects how much American consumers should expect to see heating expenditures rise during the 2010-2011 winter season. These findings take into account the currently slow economic growth, high unemployment numbers, and uncertainty regarding the federal funding of the Low Income Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP).
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Nuclear Energy Policy

Nuclear Energy Policy

Date: October 21, 2010
Creator: Holt, Mark
Description: This report discusses nuclear energy issues currently facing Congress, such as federal incentives for new commercial reactors, radioactive waste management policy, research and development priorities, power plant safety and regulation, nuclear weapons proliferation, and security against terrorist attacks.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework

Offshore Oil and Gas Development: Legal Framework

Date: September 20, 2010
Creator: Vann, Adam
Description: The development of offshore oil, gas, and other mineral resources in the United States is impacted by a number of interrelated legal regimes, including international, federal, and state laws. International law provides a framework for establishing national ownership or control of offshore areas, and domestic federal law mirrors and supplements these standards. This report discusses these issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Options for a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard

Options for a Federal Renewable Electricity Standard

Date: November 12, 2010
Creator: Campbell, Richard J.
Description: This report discusses current ideas for a federal Renewable Electricity (or Energy) Standard (RES) and a broader Clean Energy Standard (CES). The goal of this report is to explore how such policies could potentially increase the amounts of renewable electricity generated in the United States, discussing other related public policy goals and rationales for renewable energy development, and the challenges/drawbacks of RES policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management

Energy's Water Demand: Trends, Vulnerabilities, and Management

Date: November 24, 2010
Creator: Carter, Nicole T.
Description: The nation's energy choices embody many tradeoffs. Water use is one of those tradeoffs. The energy choices before Congress represent vastly different demands on domestic freshwater. The energy sector's water consumption is projected to rise 50% from 2005 to 2030. This rising water demand derives from both an increase in the amount of energy demanded and shifts to more water-intense energy sources and technologies. This report discusses this issue as well as related issues that may arise for the 112th Congress.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Geoengineering: Governance and Technology Policy

Date: January 10, 2011
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi; Lattanzio, Richard K. & Barbour, Emily C.
Description: This report is intended as a primer on the policy issues, science, and governance of geoengineering technologies. The report will first set the policy parameters under which geoengineering technologies may be considered. It will then describe selected technologies in detail and discuss their status. The third section provides a discussion of possible approaches to governmental involvement in, and oversight of, geoengineering, including a summary of domestic and international instruments and institutions that may affect geoengineering projects.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Biomass Feedstocks for Biopower: Background and Selected Issues

Biomass Feedstocks for Biopower: Background and Selected Issues

Date: October 6, 2010
Creator: Bracmort, Kelsi
Description: The production of bioenergy - renewable energy derived from biomass - could potentially increase national energy security, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and contribute to rural economic growth. This report provides analyses of commonly discussed biomass feedstocks and their relative potential for power generation. Additional biopower issues - feedstock accessibility, the biomass power plant carbon-neutrality debate, and unintended consequences of legislative activities to promote bioenergy - are also discussed.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Changes in the Arctic: Background and Issues for Congress

Date: October 8, 2010
Creator: O'Rourke, Ronald
Description: The diminishment of Arctic sea ice has led to increased human activities in the Arctic, and has heightened concerns about the region's future. Issues such as Arctic sovereignty claims; commercial shipping through the Arctic; Arctic oil, gas, and mineral exploration; endangered Arctic species; and increased military operations in the Arctic could cause the region in coming years to become an arena of international cooperation, competition, or conflict. This report provides an overview of Arctic-related issues for Congress, and refers readers to more in-depth CRS reports on specific Arctic-related issues.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Technology Vehicles: Issues in Congress

Date: September 22, 2010
Creator: Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report provides an overview of current issues surrounding alternative fuels and advanced technology vehicles - issues discussed in further detail in other CRS reports referred to in each section.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The Stuxnet Computer Worm: Harbinger of an Emerging Warfare Capability

The Stuxnet Computer Worm: Harbinger of an Emerging Warfare Capability

Date: December 9, 2010
Creator: Kerr, Paul K.; Rollins, John & Theohary, Catherine A.
Description: In September 2010, media reports emerged about a new form of cyber attack that appeared to target Iran, although the actual target, if any, is unknown. This report discusses this cyber attack, a malicious software program known as Stuxnet, which infected computer systems that were used to control the functioning of a nuclear power plant. Once inside the system, Stuxnet had the ability to degrade or destroy the software on which it operated. Although early reports focused on the impact on facilities in Iran, researchers discovered that the program had spread throughout multiple countries worldwide.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues

Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS): Overview and Issues

Date: October 14, 2010
Creator: Schnepf, Randy & Yacobucci, Brent D.
Description: This report focuses on the mandated minimum usage requirements - referred to as the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) - whereby a minimum volume of biofuels is to be used in the national transportation fuel supply each year. It describes the general nature of the biofuels RFS and its implementation, and outlines some of the emerging issues related to the sustainability of the continued growth in U.S. biofuels production needed to fulfill the expanding RFS mandate, as well as the emergence of potential unintended consequences of this rapid expansion. This report does not address the broader public policy issue of how best to support U.S. energy policy.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
The U.S. Oil Refining Industry: Background in Changing Markets and Fuel Policies

The U.S. Oil Refining Industry: Background in Changing Markets and Fuel Policies

Date: November 22, 2010
Creator: Andrews, Anthony; Pirog, Robert & Sherlock, Molly F.
Description: This report begins by looking at the current production capacity of the oil refineries operating in the United States, and the sources and changes in crude oil supply. It then examines the changing characteristics of petroleum and petroleum product markets and identifies the effects of these changes on the refining industry. The report concludes with discussion of the policy and regulatory factors that are likely to affect the structure and performance of the industry during the next decade.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

U.S. Trade Deficit and the Impact of Changing Oil Prices

Date: September 14, 2010
Creator: Jackson, James K.
Description: This report provides an estimate of the initial impact of the changing oil prices on the nation's merchandise trade deficit.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress

Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth & Vaughn, Bruce
Description: This report briefly discusses nuclear relations and cooperation between the United States and Australia, including the Atomic Energy Act and President Obama's latest renewal agreement of said Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress

U.S.-Australia Civilian Nuclear Cooperation: Issues for Congress

Date: September 30, 2010
Creator: Nikitin, Mary Beth & Vaughn, Bruce
Description: This report briefly discusses nuclear relations and cooperation between the United States and Australia, including the Atomic Energy Act and President Obama's latest renewal agreement of said Act.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D

Renewable Energy R&D Funding History: A Comparison with Funding for Nuclear Energy, Fossil Energy, and Energy Efficiency R&D

Date: January 26, 2011
Creator: Sissine, Fred
Description: This report provides a cumulative history of Department of Energy (DOE) funding for renewable energy compared with funding for the other energy technologies-nuclear energy, fossil energy, and energy efficiency.
Contributing Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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