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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2009-FY2010, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462295/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2005-FY2010, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463189/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2010-FY2011, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462889/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2010-FY2011, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463296/
Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery
This report briefly discusses the options for federal support and assistance for areas affected by wildfire disasters, including the period during wildfires, in the aftermath, and subsequently for preventing a recurrence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463426/
Potential Stafford Act Declarations for the Gulf Coast Oil Spill: Issues for Congress
This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, which authorizes the President to issue "major disaster" or "emergency" declarations before or after catastrophes occur. Emergency declarations trigger aid that protects property, public health, and safety and lessens or averts the threat of an incident becoming a catastrophic event. A major disaster declaration, issued after a catastrophe occurs, constitutes broader authority for federal agencies to provide supplemental assistance to help state and local governments, families and individuals, and certain nonprofit organizations recover from the incident. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491002/
A Whole-Farm Crop Disaster Program: Supplemental Revenue Assistance Payments (SURE)
This report discusses the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-246, 2008 farm bill), which created a set of disaster programs called "Supplemental Agricultural Disaster Assistance." The programs supplement crop insurance coverage and provide disaster assistance for livestock (including aquaculture and honey bees), forage, and tree and nursery crops. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491131/
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster. First created in 1970 through P.L. 91-606, DUA benefits are authorized by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Relief Act (the Stafford Act), which authorizes the President to issue a major disaster declaration after state and local government resources have been overwhelmed by a natural catastrophe or, "regardless of cause, any fire, flood, or explosion in any part of the United States." This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491448/
Emergency Communications: Broadband and the Future of 911
Today's 911 system is built on an infrastructure of analog technology that does not support many of the features that most Americans expect to be part of an emergency response. Efforts to splice newer, digital technologies onto this aging infrastructure have created points of failure where a call can be dropped or misdirected, sometimes with tragic consequences. Callers to 911, however, generally assume that the newer technologies they are using to place a call are matched by the same level of technology at the 911 call centers, known as Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs). This report discusses possible paths toward the modernization of the 911 infrastructure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491651/
Commercial Fishery Disaster Assistance
This report discusses disaster relief for commercial fishery, which be provided by the federal government to assist the fishing industry when it is affected by a commercial fishery failure. A commercial fishery failure occurs when fishermen endure economic hardships resulting from fish population declines or other disruptions to the fishery. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491599/
The Americans with Disabilities Act and Emergency Preparedness and Response
This report discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment, public services, and public accommodations and services operated by private entities. Although the ADA does not include provisions specifically discussing its application to disasters, its nondiscrimination provisions are applicable to emergency preparedness and responses to disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490879/
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits are available only to those individuals who have become unemployed as a direct result of a declared major disaster. This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490986/
Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes in the United States
This report discusses the natural basis of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes and the risk associated with them. The report also examines several options Congress could consider to potentially reduce the costs these destructive natural events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463080/
Peacekeeping/Stabilization and Conflict Transitions: Background and Congressional Action on the Civilian Response/Reserve Corps and other Civilian Stabilization and Reconstruction Capabilities
This report provides background information relating to the Office of the Coordinator for Reconstruction and Stabilization (S/CRS) in the Office of the Secretary of State. This office was created in mid-2004 as part of the Bush Administration's efforts to develop adequate civilian organizational structures, procedures, and personnel to respond effectively to post-conflict, "stabilization and reconstruction" situations, most especially in Afghanistan and Iran. This report also discusses proposals and tracks related legislative action. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462221/
Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes in the United States
This report discusses the natural basis of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes and the risk associated with them. The report also examines several options Congress could consider to potentially reduce the costs these destructive natural events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462516/
The First Responder Network and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
This report discusses provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462539/
Side-by-Side Comparison of Flood Insurance Reform Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report provides background information regarding the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), and discusses the key points for flood insurance reform and the changes that should be made in the broader context of program re-authorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462341/
Severe Thunderstorms and Tornadoes in the United States
This report discusses the natural basis of severe thunderstorms and tornadoes and the risk associated with them. The report also examines several options Congress could consider to potentially reduce the costs these destructive natural events. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462359/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which authorizes grants to career, volunteer, and combination local fire departments for the purpose of increasing the number of firefighters to help communities meet industry-minimum standards and attain 24-hour staffing to provide adequate protection from fire and fire-related hazards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462509/
The Public Health and Medical Response to Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding
This report examines, first, the authorities and coordinating mechanisms of the President and the Secretary of HHS in providing routine assistance, and assistance pursuant to emergency or major disaster declarations and/or public health emergency determinations; second, mechanisms to assure a coordinated federal response to public health and medical emergencies, and overlaps or gaps in agency responsibilities; and finally, existing mechanisms, potential gaps, and proposals for financing the costs of a response to public health and medical emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462504/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data
This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations enacted after major disasters since 1989. The report discusses the most recent and costly disasters occurred in the summer of 2005 when Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma made landfall in Gulf Coast states. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462770/
Flood Risk Management and Levees: A Federal Primer
This report provides a primer on responsibilities for flood management, describes the role of federal agencies, and discusses flood issues before the 110th Congress. The report also discusses the legislative response to Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462111/
Analysis of the Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013
This report analyzes the provisions of the Sandy Recovery Improvement Act of 2013. In general, these provisions amend the Stafford Act with a stated goal of improving the efficiency and quality of disaster assistance provided by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463100/
FEMA Disaster Housing and Hurricane Katrina: Overview, Analysis, and Congressional Issues
This report discusses the issues with the housing policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), particularly as they relate to the Post-Katrina Act of 2006 and the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Plan. It includes an overview of the Stafford Act sections 403 and 408 as well as a breakdown of issues for Congress and possible Congressional approaches to address the policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462896/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data
This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations legislation enacted since 1989 after significant catastrophes. It includes funds appropriated to the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), as well as funds appropriated to other departments and agencies. This report uses a broad concept of what constitutes emergency disaster assistance. The funds cited in this report include appropriations for disaster relief, repair of federal facilities, and hazard mitigation activities directed at reducing the impact of future disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462897/
Fire Management Assistance Grants: Frequently Asked Questions
This report answers frequently asked questions about the Fire Management Assistance Grant, which authorized by the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act provides various forms of federal assistance such as the provision of equipment, personnel, and grants to state, local, and tribal governments for the control, management, and mitigation of any fire on certain public or private forest land or grassland that might become a major disaster. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462931/
Earthquakes: Risk, Monitoring, Notification, and Research
This report describes estimates of earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, the current federal programs that support earthquake monitoring and that provide notification after a seismic event, and the programs that support mitigation and research aimed at reducing U.S. vulnerability to earthquakes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462427/
The Public Health and Medical Response to Disasters: Federal Authority and Funding
This report examines (1) the authorities and coordinating mechanisms of the President and the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) in providing routine assistance, and assistance pursuant to emergency or major disaster declarations and/or public health emergency determinations; (2) mechanisms to assure a coordinated federal response to public health and medical emergencies, and overlaps or gaps in agency responsibilities; and (3) existing mechanisms, potential gaps, and proposals for financing the costs of a response to public health and medical emergencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461895/
The First Responder Network and Next-Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
This report covers a background of provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461893/
The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress
This report provides an analysis of flood risk management, summarizes major challenges facing the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), and outlines key reforms enacted in the Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012. The report identifies and presents some key remaining flood management issues for congressional consideration, and concludes with a discussion of policy options for the future financial management of flood hazards in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462628/
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
The Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) program provides income support to individuals who become unemployed as a direct result of a major disaster and who are not eligible for regular Unemployment Compensation (UC) benefits. DUA is funded through the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and is administered by the Department of Labor (DOL) through each state's UC agency. This report contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for DUA benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501521/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses: earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, federal programs that support earthquake monitoring, the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings, and federally-supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501491/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, federal programs that support earthquake monitoring, the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings, and federally-supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505482/
Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces: Facts and Issues
This report discusses Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) Task Forces, which have been certified, trained, and funded by the federal government. The task forces represent a partnership involving federal, local government, and private sector experts. Most recently, USAR teams received considerable publicity, and reportedly achieved life-saving results, in their mission to Haiti after the earthquakes of early 2010. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503553/
Earthquake Risk, Insurance, and Recovery: Issues for Congress
This report examines earthquake catastrophe risk and insurance in the United States in light of recent developments, particularly the devastating earthquakes in Haiti and Chile. It examines both traditional and non-traditional approaches for financing recovery from earthquake losses as well as challenges in financing catastrophe losses with insurance. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503561/
FEMA Disaster Cost-Shares: Evolution and Analysis
This report discusses cost-share waivers by program area, historical cost-share thresholds, hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, Dennis, and Rita, as well as hurricanes Gustav, Ike and other disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503330/
Emergency Communications: The Future of 911
This report discusses possible paths toward the modernization of the 911 infrastructure. Efforts to splice newer, digital technologies onto the aging infrastructure have created points of failure where a call can be dropped or misdirected, sometimes with tragic consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503295/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses: The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program NEHRP; earthquake hazards and risk in the United States; federal programs that support earthquake monitoring; the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings; and federally supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503598/
Emergency Communications: Broadband and the Future of 911
This report discusses the current 911 infrastructure and possible options for modernizing the system to Next Generation 911 technology (NG9-1-1). It includes information about relevant legislation and policy, funding and grants, ways to create a base for change, the potential role of the Department of Homeland Security, and Congressional policy. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503582/
Charitable Contributions for Haiti's Earthquake Victims
This report discusses the Haiti Assistance Income Tax Incentive Act (HAITI Act; H.R. 4462), a bill passed on January 20, 2010 to accelerate the income tax benefits for charitable cash contributions for the relief of earthquake victims. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505529/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which authorizes grants to career, volunteer, and combination local fire departments for the purpose of increasing the number of firefighters to help communities meet industry-minimum standards and attain 24-hour staffing to provide adequate protection from fire and fire-related hazards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505566/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, federal programs that support earthquake monitoring, the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings, and federally-supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505452/
The Americans with Disabilities Act and Emergency Preparedness and Response
This report discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), which provides broad nondiscrimination protection for individuals with disabilities in employment, public services, and public accommodations and services operated by private entities. Although the ADA does not include provisions specifically discussing its application to disasters, its nondiscrimination provisions are applicable to emergency preparedness and responses to disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505473/
Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces: Facts and Issues
This report provides an overview of the Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) task forces that has been designated by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) to provide specialized assistance after buildings or other structures collapse. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503421/
Emergency Communications: The Future of 911
This report discusses possible paths toward the modernization of the 911 infrastructure. Efforts to splice newer, digital technologies onto the aging infrastructure have created points of failure where a call can be dropped or misdirected, sometimes with tragic consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503419/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: Selected Legal Issues
This report provides a brief overview of selected legal issues regarding the H1N1 influenza, including emergency measures, civil rights, liability issues, and employment issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626971/
California Drought: Hydrological and Regulatory Water Supply Issues
This report discusses California's current hydrological situation and provides background on regulatory restrictions affecting California water deliveries, as well as on the long-established state water rights system, which also results in uneven water deliveries in times of shortages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626963/
Emergency Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation: CRS Experts
This report includes a table that provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to emergency preparedness and hazard mitigation. Includes a number of policy areas, such as: emergency preparedness and protection missions, functions, and structures; emergency authorities; preparedness plans; communications networks; warning systems; and state and local homeland security funding, training, and standards. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627097/
Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues
Report that summarizes recent trends in supplemental funding for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, particularly related to natural disasters. It provides summary data and analysis on Corps funding over the last 10 years and includes a general discussion of how the Corps funds emergency actions at its own facilities and elsewhere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227832/
Considerations for a Catastrophic Declaration: Issues and Analysis
This report examines concerns expressed by policymakers and experts that current Stafford Act declarations are inadequate to respond to, and recover from, highly destructive events. It presents the arguments for and against amending the act to add a catastrophic declaration amendment. This report also includes data analyses of past and potential disasters to determine what incidents might be deemed as catastrophic, and explores alternative policy options that might obviate the need for catastrophic declarations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98006/