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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for Disaster Response, Recovery, and Mitigation Projects
This report discusses the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as it applies to projects for which federal funding to recover from or prepare for a disaster has been requested by local, tribal, or state grant applicants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505496/
Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for Disaster Response, Recovery, and Mitigation Projects
Report that discusses the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as it applies to projects for which federal funding to recover from or prepare for a disaster has been requested by local, tribal, or state grant applicants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228081/
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures
Since October 2001, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Department of Defense (DOD) efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10213/
Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures
This report discusses Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs, or roadside bombs) in Iraq and Afghanistan. IEDs have been responsible for many of the more than 2,000 combat deaths in Iraq, and 178 combat deaths in Afghanistan. IEDs are hidden behind signs and guardrails, under roadside debris, or inside animal carcasses, and encounters with these bombs are becoming more numerous and deadly in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The threat includes vehicle-borne IEDs, in which extremists drive cars laden with explosives directly into a target. DOD efforts to counter IEDs have proven only marginally effective, and U.S. forces continue to be exposed to the threat at military checkpoints, or whenever on patrol. IEDs are increasingly being used in Afghanistan, and DOD reportedly is concerned that they might eventually be more widely used by other insurgents and terrorists worldwide. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9925/
Improvised Explosive Devices in Iraq: Effects and Countermeasures
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7975/
Income Tax Relief in Times of Disaster
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7646/
Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Food Aid Needs and the U.S. Response
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7334/
Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6218/
Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
This report summarizes the extent of the disaster and relief effort and includes descriptions of the U.S. and international assistance efforts. It also examines protection mechanisms for children and separated orphans. A section is devoted to the situation in each of the affected countries followed by an analysis of selected issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795433/
Indiana Emergency Management and Homeland Security Statutory Authorities Summarized
This report is one of a series that profiles the emergency management and homeland security statutory authorities of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and three territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Each profile identifies the more significant elements of state statutes, generally as codified. This report focuses on the state of Indiana. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6599/
International Disasters: How the United States Responds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6985/
International Efforts to Control the Spread of Avian Influenza (H5N1) Virus: Affected Countries' Responses
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10830/
Iowa Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6600/
Issues Raised by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus On Education and Training
This report provides a general overview of the federally funded programs administered by the Department of Education (ED) that can be used to help those affected by this disaster, and the existing statutory and regulatory authorities available to assist individuals who have been affected by a major disaster, where applicable. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7903/
Japan 2011 Disaster: CRS Experts
The following table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to the nuclear and humanitarian disaster unfolding in Japan. Specific policy areas are identified. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33025/
Japan 2011 Earthquake: U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) Response
This report discusses the United States' Department of Defense's (DOD) Japan 2011 Earthquake relief efforts, designated "Operation Tomodachi," which is Japanese for "friend." The report includes an overview of the situation, funding for DOD efforts, naval activities, air activities, and a historical overview of U.S. military presence in Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33024/
Kansas Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6603/
Katrina Relief: U.S. Labor Department Exemption of Contractors from Written Affirmative Action Requirements
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7654/
Katrina's Wake: Restoring Financial Services
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7650/
Kentucky Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6574/
Legislative Initiatives to Temporarily Relocate Federal Courts Interrupted by Natural or Man-Made Disasters, 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7670/
Louisiana Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6730/
The Macroeconomic Effects of Hurricane Katrina
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7648/
Maine Emergency Management and Homeland Security Statutory Authorities Summarized
This report is one of a series that profiles the emergency management and homeland security statutory authorities of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and three territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Each profile identifies the more significant elements of state statutes, generally as codified. This report focuses on the state of Maine. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6616/
Major Disaster Assistance from the Disaster Relief Fund: State Profiles
This report outlines the trend in Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) obligations for both the national and state level for the period FY2000 through FY2013. It also includes individual profiles for each state and additional resources and key policy staff that can provide more information on the programs that are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503313/
Major Disaster Declarations for Snow Assistance and Severe Winter Storms: An Overview
This report describes snow assistance and assistance for severe winter storms, the declaration process, the criteria used to make eligibility determinations, and the types of assistance that are provided after the President has issued a major disaster declaration for the incident. This report also provides historical data on winter incidents since 2009 including obligations for the incidents from FEMA's Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). The DRF is the main account used to fund a wide variety of programs, grants, and other forms of emergency and disaster assistance to states, local governments, certain nonprofit entities, and families and individuals affected by disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491572/
Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges
This report addresses debris resulting from a “major disaster” or “emergency” declared by the President. First, it discusses the types of debris commonly generated during and after a disaster and selected factors that can make “debris removal” such a costly, complex operation. Second, it discusses the roles of federal, state, and local agencies after a disaster has been declared — with regard to both funding debris removal and the actual physical process of removal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461991/
Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges
This report addresses debris resulting from a "major disaster" or "emergency" declared by the President. First, it discusses the types of debris commonly generated during and after a disaster and selected factors that can make "debris removal"2 such a costly, complex operation. Second, it discusses the roles of federal, state, and local agencies after a disaster has been declared--with regard to both funding debris removal and the actual physical process of removal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503474/
Managing Disaster Debris: Overview of Regulatory Requirements, Agency Roles, and Selected Challenges
Report that addresses the challenges in removing debris resulting from a "major disaster" or "emergency" declared by the President, as well as the role of federal agencies in debris removal. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228080/
Maryland Emergency Management and Homeland Security Statutory Authorities Summarized
This report is one of a series that profiles the emergency management and homeland security statutory authorities of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, and three territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands). Each profile identifies the more significant elements of state statutes, generally as codified. This report focuses on the state of Maryland. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6618/
Massachusetts Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6577/
Meeting Public Safety Spectrum Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3417/
Meeting Public Safety Spectrum Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3419/
Meeting Public Safety Spectrum Needs
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs3418/
Michigan Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6578/
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS): Is It a Health Emergency?
This report describes key Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) response activities and the emergency authorities available to health officials when routine activities are insufficient to address a public health threat. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc332902/
Midwest Flooding Disaster: Rethinking Federal Flood Insurance?
This report examines the impact of the 2008 Midwest floods on the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) in the context of congressional efforts to reauthorize and modify the program before its authorization expires on September 30, 2008. The report begins with an assessment of the risk of flooding in the United States and why Congress might move to rethink the current multifaceted approach to federal flood insurance. The report concludes with lessons learned from the 1993 and 2008 Midwest floods, and an analysis of the NFIP's current financial conditions and major policy issues, as well as a summary of legislative proposals pending before the 110th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc461999/
The Military Commissions Act of 2009: Overview and Legal Issues
This report provides an analysis of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and its financial status, summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency, presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501710/
Minnesota Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6579/
Mississippi Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6573/
Missouri Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6732/
Montana Emergency Management and Homeland Security Authorities Summarized
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6575/
The National Commission on Children and Disasters: Overview and Issues
This report discusses The National Commission on Children and Disasters whose purpose is to assess the needs of children in the preparation for, response to, and recovery from natural disasters, acts of terrorism, and other man-made disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503420/
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief
This report discusses the responsibility of four federal agencies for long-term earthquake risk reduction under the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) and current legislation aiming to appropriate more funds to the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462494/
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP): Issues in Brief
Report that discusses the responsibility of four federal agencies for long-term earthquake risk reduction: the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227882/
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: Preparing for the "Big One"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1165/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relief for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93819/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status, summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency, presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26167/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relif for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33010/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relif for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40078/