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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services
The 9/11 Commission Report recommended that 911 call centers — also called Public Safety Answering Points, or PSAPs — be included in planning for emergency responses.1 Congress, which has since 1999 passed two bills to further the deployment of 911, is reviewing ways to expand 911 capabilities and make it more accessible and effective. Congress is also evaluating ways to improve emergency alerts2 and interoperable communications for public safety.3 Operational convergence of emergency communications seems to many to be inevitable, a question of “when,” not “if.” This report deals primarily with 911 and its recent history. It also summarizes some of the proposals that would improve 911 through new approaches and integration with other services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8774/
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Intergrating 911 and Other Services
The 9/11 Commission Report recommended that 911 call centers — also called Public Safety Answering Points, or PSAPs — be included in planning for emergency responses.1 Congress, which has since 1999 passed two bills to further the deployment of 911, is reviewing ways to expand 911 capabilities and make it more accessible and effective. Congress is also evaluating ways to improve emergency alerts2 and interoperable communications for public safety.3 Operational convergence of emergency communications seems to many to be inevitable, a question of “when,” not “if.” This report deals primarily with 911 and its recent history. It also summarizes some of the proposals that would improve 911 through new approaches and integration with other services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8989/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is built on a structure conceived in the 1950s when over-the-air broadcasting was the best-available technology for widely disseminating emergency alerts. Bills in the 109th Congress that would improve emergency alert systems, domestically and internationally, include S. 50 (Senator Inouye) and H.R. 296 (Representative Menendez); these bills were prompted by the tsunami disaster but include measures that also apply to the need for a better all-hazard warning system in the United States. The report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Weather Service (NWS) all-hazard network, new programs in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and some of the key proposals for change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10412/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is built on a structure conceived in the 1950s when over-the-air broadcasting was the best-available technology for widely disseminating emergency alerts. Bills in the 109th Congress that would improve emergency alert systems, domestically and internationally, include S. 50 (Senator Inouye) and H.R. 296 (Representative Menendez); these bills were prompted by the tsunami disaster but include measures that also apply to the need for a better all-hazard warning system in the United States. The report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/National Weather Service (NWS) all-hazard network, new programs in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and some of the key proposals for change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10411/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9362/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9789/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9904/
Earthquake Risk and U.S. Highway Infrastructure: Frequently Asked Questions
This report addresses frequently asked questions about the risk from earthquakes to highway systems, including bridges, tunnels, pavements, and other highway components. Particular attention is given to highway bridges, which often are the most vulnerable highway structures. The report also discusses federal and nonfederal actions to reduce seismic risk to the U.S. highway system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99050/
The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC): An Overview
The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is an agreement among member states to provide assistance after disasters overwhelm a state’s capacity to manage the consequences. The compact, initiated by the states and coordinated by the National Emergency Management Association, provides a structure for requesting emergency assistance from party states. EMAC also resolves some, but not all, potential legal and administrative obstacles that may hinder such assistance. EMAC also enhances state preparedness for terrorist attacks by ensuring the availability of resources for fast response and facilitating multi-state cooperation in training activities and preparedness exercises. Congress approved EMAC as an interstate compact in 1996 (P.L. 104-321). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7952/
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA): A Summary
This report summarizes the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to- Know Act (EPCRA) and the major regulatory programs that mandate reporting by industrial facilities of releases of hazardous chemicals to the environment, as well as local planning to respond in the event of significant, accidental releases. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93996/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9702/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data
This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations enacted after major disasters since 1989. The report discusses the most recent and costly disasters occurred in the summer of 2005 when Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma made landfall in Gulf Coast states. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94020/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data FY1989 to FY2005
This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations enacted after major disasters since 1989. More recently, Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane after passing over South Florida as a Category 1 hurricane on August 25, 2005. In response, on September 2, 2005, President Bush signed into law a $10.5 billion supplemental appropriations measure, P.L. 109-61, which provided disaster assistance funds for the affected areas. On September 9, 2005, the President signed into law a second supplemental measure totaling $51.8 billion in appropriations, P.L. 109-62. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) administers most of these funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8126/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
In response to the widespread destruction caused by Hurricane Katrina, the 109th Congress enacted two FY2005 emergency supplemental appropriations bills, which together provide $62.3 billion for emergency response and recovery needs. However, the funding streams of these appropriated funds and amounts for disaster recovery have changed and appear likely to undergo further changes, largely at the request of the Administration. This report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10218/
The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
Since September 11, 2001, when communications failures contributed to the tragedies of the day, Congress has passed several laws intended to create a nationwide emergency communications capability. Yet the United States has continued to strive for a solution that assures seamless communications among first responders and emergency personnel at the scene of a major disaster. To address this problem, Congress included provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-96) for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications, and assigned additional spectrum to accommodate the new network. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87230/
The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
Report that covers a background of provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227767/
The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
Background of provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc86635/
The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
This report covers a background of provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122227/
Federal Funding for Wildfire Control and Management
This report looks at four issues dominating wildfire funding debates: the high cost of fire management, funding for fuel reduction, the federal role in protecting nonfederal lands, and post-fire rehabilitation. The Forest Service (FS) and the Department of the Interior (DOI) are responsible for protecting most federal lands from wildfires, however, many in Congress are concerned that wildfire costs are spiraling upward without a reduction in damages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96772/
FEMA Disaster Housing and Hurricane Katrina: Overview, Analysis, and Congressional Issues
This report discusses the issues with the housing policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), particularly as they relate to the Post-Katrina Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-295) and the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Plan (P.L. 93-288). It includes an overview of the Stafford Act sections 403 and 408 as well as a breakdown of issues for Congress and possible Congressional approaches to address the policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94108/
FEMA's Community Disaster Loan Program: History, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
This report compares and analyzes three different categories of loans issued in different time periods in the program's history: "traditional" loans issued between 1974 and 2005, in 2007, and between 2009 and 2011 (TCDLs); "special" (SCDLs) loans issued in 2005-2006 following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; and loans issued under unique provisions in 2008 (2008 CDLs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93932/
Flood Risk Management and Levees: A Federal Primer
This report provides a primer on responsibilities for flood management, describes the role of federal agencies, and discusses flood issues before the 110th Congress. The report also discusses the legislative response to Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94013/
Financing Natural Catastrophe Exposure: Issues and Options for Improving Risk Transfer Markets
This report opens with an examination of the current role of private insurers in managing disaster risk and their capacity and willingness to deal with the rising cost of financing recovery and reconstruction following natural disasters. The report then examines the current role of federal, state, and local governments in managing disaster risk. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227907/
Hurricane Katrina: Insurance Losses and National Capacities for Financing Disaster Risk
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7611/
First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7025/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7275/
Public Safety Communications: Policy, Proposals, Legislation and Progress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7278/
International Disasters: How the United States Responds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6985/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7358/
The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological Resources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7672/
Rural Housing: USDA Disaster Relief Provisions
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7750/
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services
The 9/11 Commission Report recommended that 911 call centers — also called Public Safety Answering Points, or PSAPs — be included in planning for emergency responses.1 Congress, which has since 1999 passed two bills to further the deployment of 911, is reviewing ways to expand 911 capabilities and make it more accessible and effective. Congress is also evaluating ways to improve emergency alerts2 and interoperable communications for public safety.3 Operational convergence of emergency communications seems to many to be inevitable, a question of “when,” not “if.” This report deals primarily with 911 and its recent history. It also summarizes some of the proposals that would improve 911 through new approaches and integration with other services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7692/
Federal Flood Insurance: The Repetitive Loss Problem
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7693/
Federal Employees: Human Resources Management Flexibilities in Emergency Situations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7651/
Commercial Fishery Disaster Assistance
This report discusses disaster relief for commercial fishery, which be provided by the federal government to assist the fishing industry when it is affected by a commercial fishery failure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94118/
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
Report that contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228136/
Congressional Primer on Major Disasters and Emergencies
This report covers the role of the government in disaster management. While the disaster response and recovery process is fundamentally a relationship between the federal government and the requesting state government, there are roles for congressional offices to play in providing information to the federal/state response and recovery teams in their respective states and districts. Congressional offices also serve as a valuable source of accurate and timely information to their constituents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93900/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
Report that discusses: earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, federal programs that support earthquake monitoring, the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings, and federally supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228061/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), a program under which the federal government supports efforts to assess and monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States. This report also discusses earthquake hazards and risk in the United States; federal programs that support earthquake monitoring; the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings; and federally-supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103205/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), a program under which the federal government supports efforts to assess and monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States. This report also discusses earthquake hazards and risk in the United States; federal programs that support earthquake monitoring; the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings; and federally supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33064/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), a program under which the federal government supports efforts to assess and monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States. This report also discusses earthquake hazards and risk in the United States; federal programs that support earthquake monitoring; the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings; and federally supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94096/
Earthquakes: Risk, Monitoring, Notification, and Research
This report describes estimates of earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, the current federal programs that support earthquake monitoring and that provide notification after a seismic event, and the programs that support mitigation and research aimed at reducing U.S. vulnerability to earthquakes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94095/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5869/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6217/
The 2009 Influenza Pandemic: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or commonly, swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries (such as Mexico and other Latin American nations), and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26157/
FEMA's Mission: Policy Directives for the Federal Emergency Management Agency
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2745/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 7, 2003, President Bush submitted a second supplemental appropriations request to Congress for FY2003. The request seeks $1.889 billion for three disaster relief activities: $289 million for wildfire suppression and rehabilitation carried out by the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, $1.550 billion for disaster relief administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and $50 million for the investigation and recovery associated with the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. For the most part, Members of Congress evince support for the disaster relief funding request; however, some debate has occurred on other funding sought, notably funding for AmeriCorps grants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4423/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 7, 2003, President Bush submitted a second supplemental appropriations request to Congress for FY2003. The request seeks $1.889 billion for three disaster relief activities: $289 million for wildfire suppression and rehabilitation carried out by the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, $1.550 billion for disaster relief administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and $50 million for the investigation and recovery associated with the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. For the most part, Members of Congress evince support for the disaster relief funding request; however, some debate has occurred on other funding sought, notably funding for AmeriCorps grants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4424/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 25, 2003, the House approved a supplemental appropriations measure (H.R. 2859) that provides $983.6 million for the Disaster Relief Fund administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). During debate Members rejected an amendment to require a rescission from discretionary accounts to compensate for the supplemental. On July 31 the Senate approved the House-passed version of H.R. 2859. The President signed the Emergency Supplemental Appropriation for Disaster Relief Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-69) on August 8, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4425/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
Federal departments and agencies are authorized to undertake a range of emergency management activities, including disaster relief and response efforts. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has primary responsibility, but other departments and agencies provide grants and loans to disaster victims and reimburse state and local governments overwhelmed by costs associated with clearing debris and rebuilding facilities, among other forms of assistance. FY2003 supplemental funding for these activities has been the issue of debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4426/