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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7275/
International Disasters: How the United States Responds
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6985/
The Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Biological Resources
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7672/
Federal Employees: Human Resources Management Flexibilities in Emergency Situations
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7651/
Hurricane Katrina: Insurance Losses and National Capacities for Financing Disaster Risk
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7611/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations Legislation for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data FY1989 to FY2005
This report provides summary information on emergency supplemental appropriations enacted after major disasters since 1989. More recently, Hurricane Katrina made landfall on the Gulf Coast of the United States on August 29, 2005, as a Category 3 hurricane after passing over South Florida as a Category 1 hurricane on August 25, 2005. In response, on September 2, 2005, President Bush signed into law a $10.5 billion supplemental appropriations measure, P.L. 109-61, which provided disaster assistance funds for the affected areas. On September 9, 2005, the President signed into law a second supplemental measure totaling $51.8 billion in appropriations, P.L. 109-62. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) administers most of these funds. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8126/
First Responder Initiative: Policy Issues and Options
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7025/
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations for Hurricane Katrina Relief
This CRS report summarizes federal disaster assistance funding legislation in the 109th Congress and presents some information on federal expenditures and obligations for disaster recovery activities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7358/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5869/
Emergency Communications: The Emergency Alert System (EAS) and All-Hazard Warnings
The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is one of several federally managed warning systems. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) jointly administers EAS with the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), in cooperation with the National Weather Service (NWS), an organization within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The NOAA/NWS weather radio system has been upgraded to an all-hazard warning capability. This report summarizes the technology and administration of EAS and the NOAA/NWS all-hazard network, and some of the key proposals for change. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5868/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
Federal departments and agencies are authorized to undertake a range of emergency management activities, including disaster relief and response efforts. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has primary responsibility, but other departments and agencies provide grants and loans to disaster victims and reimburse state and local governments overwhelmed by costs associated with clearing debris and rebuilding facilities, among other forms of assistance. FY2003 supplemental funding for these activities has been the issue of debate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4426/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 25, 2003, the House approved a supplemental appropriations measure (H.R. 2859) that provides $983.6 million for the Disaster Relief Fund administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). During debate Members rejected an amendment to require a rescission from discretionary accounts to compensate for the supplemental. On July 31 the Senate approved the House-passed version of H.R. 2859. The President signed the Emergency Supplemental Appropriation for Disaster Relief Act of 2003 (P.L. 108-69) on August 8, 2003. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4425/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6217/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 7, 2003, President Bush submitted a second supplemental appropriations request to Congress for FY2003. The request seeks $1.889 billion for three disaster relief activities: $289 million for wildfire suppression and rehabilitation carried out by the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, $1.550 billion for disaster relief administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and $50 million for the investigation and recovery associated with the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. For the most part, Members of Congress evince support for the disaster relief funding request; however, some debate has occurred on other funding sought, notably funding for AmeriCorps grants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4424/
Disaster Relief and Response: FY2003 Supplemental Appropriations
On July 7, 2003, President Bush submitted a second supplemental appropriations request to Congress for FY2003. The request seeks $1.889 billion for three disaster relief activities: $289 million for wildfire suppression and rehabilitation carried out by the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior, $1.550 billion for disaster relief administered by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and $50 million for the investigation and recovery associated with the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster. For the most part, Members of Congress evince support for the disaster relief funding request; however, some debate has occurred on other funding sought, notably funding for AmeriCorps grants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs4423/
The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
This report covers a background of provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122227/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2011-FY2013, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122299/
Weather-Related Power Outages and Electric System Resiliency
This report focuses on the impacts of sustained power outages as might result from the result of seasonal storms, and whether there is a role for the federal government in hastening the restoration of power from weather-related outages. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122249/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
This report discusses the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP), a program under which the federal government supports efforts to assess and monitor earthquake hazards and risk in the United States. This report also discusses earthquake hazards and risk in the United States; federal programs that support earthquake monitoring; the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings; and federally-supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103205/
Public Health and Emergency Preparedness: CRS Experts
This table provides access to names and contact information for CRS experts on policy concerns relating to public health and emergency preparedness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc103069/
Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery
This report briefly discusses the options for federal support and assistance for areas affected by wildfire disaster including the period during wildfires, in the aftermath, and later for preventing a recurrence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc98003/
The First Responder Network and Next- Generation Communications for Public Safety: Issues for Congress
Report that covers a background of provisions in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 for planning, building, and managing a new, nationwide, broadband network for public safety communications. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227767/
Financing Natural Catastrophe Exposure: Issues and Options for Improving Risk Transfer Markets
This report opens with an examination of the current role of private insurers in managing disaster risk and their capacity and willingness to deal with the rising cost of financing recovery and reconstruction following natural disasters. The report then examines the current role of federal, state, and local governments in managing disaster risk. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227907/
Federal Emergency Management: A Brief Introduction
Report that is designed to provide Members of Congress and congressional staff with a general overview of principles and foundations of federal emergency management in the United States as well as the types of activities provided by various federal agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227837/
Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues
Report that summarizes recent trends in supplemental funding for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, particularly related to natural disasters. It provides summary data and analysis on Corps funding over the last 10 years and includes a general discussion of how the Corps funds emergency actions at its own facilities and elsewhere. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227832/
Federal Disaster Assistance after Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike
Report that provides information on federal financial assistance provided to the Gulf States after major disasters were declared in Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas in response to the widespread destruction that resulted from Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma in 2005 and Hurricanes Gustav and Ike in 2008. This includes a brief summary of each hurricane and a discussion concerning federal to state cost-shares. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227881/
Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA)
Report that contains information on how to ascertain if an individual is eligible for Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA) benefits. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228136/
Earthquakes: Risk, Detection, Warning, and Research
Report that discusses: earthquake hazards and risk in the United States, federal programs that support earthquake monitoring, the U.S. capability to detect earthquakes and issue notifications and warnings, and federally supported research to improve the fundamental scientific understanding of earthquakes with a goal of reducing U.S. vulnerability. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc228061/
FEMA's Mission: Policy Directives for the Federal Emergency Management Agency
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2745/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2011-FY2013, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272098/
Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): U.S. and International Response to Philippines Disaster
This report examines the impact of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which struck the central Philippines on November 8, 2013, and the U.S. and international response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272060/
Wildfire Damages to Homes and Resources: Understanding Causes and Reducing Losses
This report focuses on options for protecting structures and for protecting wildlands and natural resources from wildfires. It begins with a brief overview of the nature of wildfires, followed by a discussion of protecting structures. Then, it discusses wildfire damages to wildlands and natural resources, fuel treatment options and their benefits and limitations, and public involvement in federal decisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272116/
Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda): U.S. and International Response to Philippines Disaster
This report examines the impact of Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), which struck the central Philippines on November 8, 2013, and the U.S. and international response. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282292/
Wildfire Fuels and Fuel Reduction
This report examines wildfire biomass fuels. It discusses fuel characteristics and their relation to wildfire intensity and spread, and includes a description of actions proposed to reduce biomass fuel levels, their effectiveness for protecting property and resources from wildfires, and their impacts on other resource values. It concludes with an examination of the federal authorities for fuel reduction activities on federal and non-federal lands, together with data on the funding provided under each of these authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282274/
Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion
This report discusses the criteria that foreign nationals must meet before admission to the United States including the reasons why a foreign national might be denied admission, most particularly on health-related grounds. It describes this issue in relation to the recent outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 ("swine flu") virus, and how the outbreak has affected various government agencies, such as the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agency within the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). This report also discusses efforts to confront and address related issues on a legislative front. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287943/
Congressional Primer on Responding to Major Disasters and Emergencies
This report covers the role of the government in disaster management. While the disaster response and recovery process is fundamentally a relationship between the federal government and the requesting state government, there are roles for congressional offices to play in providing information to the federal/state response and recovery teams in their respective states and districts, and as a source of accurate and timely information to their constituents. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc287938/
Emergency Water Assistance During Drought: Federal Non-Agricultural Programs
This report discusses droughts in relation to several issues for Congress, including how to measure and predict drought, how to prepare, and how to coordinate federal agency actions responding to drought. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284466/
Green Infrastructure and Issues in Managing Urban Stormwater
This report discusses the stormwater problems that occur because rainwater that once soaked into the ground now runs off hard surfaces like rooftops, parking lots, and streets in excessive amounts. The report also discusses a framework document, intended to provide communities with flexibility to prioritize needed water infrastructure investments. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc284504/
Federal Assistance for Wildfire Response and Recovery
This report briefly discusses the options for federal support and assistance for areas affected by wildfire disasters, including the period during wildfires, in the aftermath, and subsequently for preventing a recurrence. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276925/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
This report discusses the Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response (SAFER) Act, which was enacted by the 108th Congress as Section 1057 of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act (P.L. 108-136). It includes background of the SAFER Act, appropriations from FY2011-FY2013, reauthorization of the program in the House and Senate, and information about program implementation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276927/
Emergency Relief for Disaster Damaged Roads and Transit Systems: In Brief
This report describes Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) assistance for the repair and reconstruction of highways and bridges damaged by disasters (such as Hurricane Sandy in 2012) or catastrophic failures (such as the collapse of the Skagit River Bridge in 2013). It begins with a brief discussion of the legislative origins of federal assistance and then addresses eligibility issues and program operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc276855/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
The Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Act (the "SAFER Act") was enacted by the 108th Congress as part of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act. This report describes the SAFER Act in brief, discusses possible budgetary modifications to the SAFER Act that are being considered due to the recent economic downturn, and explores related issues for the 112th Congress as they consider reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94027/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
The Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Act (the "SAFER Act") was enacted by the 108th Congress as part of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act. This report describes the SAFER Act in brief, discusses possible budgetary modifications to the SAFER Act that are being considered due to the recent economic downturn, and explores related issues for the 112th Congress as they consider reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94028/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
The Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Act (the "SAFER Act") was enacted by the 108th Congress as part of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act. This report describes the SAFER Act in brief, discusses possible budgetary modifications to the SAFER Act that are being considered due to the recent economic downturn, and explores related issues for the 112th Congress as they consider reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc94029/
Funding Emergency Communications: Technology and Policy Considerations
This report identifies areas where changes in existing policies and practices may facilitate achievement of the important goals for emergency communications that Congress and others have identified. Why these goals have become important, and recent planning efforts to achieve these goals, is discussed first. Next, possible barriers to achieving these goals are identified and described. The conclusion revisits key options presently under consideration by Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc83967/
Funding Emergency Communications: Technology and Policy Considerations
This report identifies areas where changes in existing policies and practices may facilitate achievement of the important goals for emergency communications that Congress and others have identified. Why these goals have become important, and recent planning efforts to achieve these goals, is discussed first. Next, possible barriers to achieving these goals are identified and described. The conclusion revisits key options presently under consideration by Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93875/
Funding Emergency Communications: Technology and Policy Considerations
This report covers U.S. efforts to find a solution that assures seamless communications among first responders and emergency personnel at the scene of a major disaster. Legislation in the 112th Congress includes the Public Safety Spectrum and Wireless Innovation Act, the Broadband for Public Safety Act of 2011, the Broadband for First Responders Act, and the Strengthening Public-safety and Enhancing Communications Through Reform, Utilization, and Modernization (SPECTRUM) Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93874/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relief for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93819/
FEMA's Community Disaster Loan Program: History, Analysis, and Issues for Congress
This report compares and analyzes three different categories of loans issued in different time periods in the program's history: "traditional" loans issued between 1974 and 2005, in 2007, and between 2009 and 2011 (TCDLs); "special" (SCDLs) loans issued in 2005-2006 following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita; and loans issued under unique provisions in 2008 (2008 CDLs). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc85428/
Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response: The SAFER Grant Program
The Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Act (the "SAFER Act") was enacted by the 108th Congress as part of the FY2004 National Defense Authorization Act. This report describes the SAFER Act in brief, discusses possible budgetary modifications to the SAFER Act that are being considered due to the recent economic downturn, and explores related issues for the 112th Congress as they consider reauthorization. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc84053/