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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Flooding Events: CRS Experts
This table provides access to names and contact information for Congressional Research Service (CRS) experts on policy concerns relating to flooding events in the United States. Policy areas identified include impacts, response and recovery, mitigation, and federal financing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc96671/
Disaster Evacuation and Displacement Policy: Issues for Congress
The devastation caused by Hurricane Katrina reaches beyond the borders of the states directly affected by the wind, rain, and floods. Before the storm reached the coast, thousands of residents of Louisiana and Mississippi evacuated to other states, including Texas and Oklahoma. Many people, for a variety of reasons, chose to disregard the mandatory evacuation orders issued by state and local officials. In general, evacuation policy is set and enforced by state and local officials. Federal policy provides for various aspects of civilian evacuation. As Members of Congress explore the challenges and losses in the states affected directly or indirectly by Hurricane Katrina, they may be called upon to consider federal policy options to more fully integrate federal and state authorities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7643/
Legislative Initiatives to Temporarily Relocate Federal Courts Interrupted by Natural or Man-Made Disasters, 109th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7670/
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services
The present capability and future effectiveness of America's network of emergency telecommunications services are among the issues under review by Congress and other entities. As technologies that can support 911 improve, many are seeing the possibility of integrating 911 into a wider safety net of emergency communications and alerts. One of the intents of Congress in passing the Wireless Communications and Public Safety Act of 1999, and of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in implementing the act, is to make 911 technology universally available throughout the United States. Legislation in the 109th Congress covering 911 or call centers all focus on assuring access to 911 call centers for users of Voice over Internet protocol (VOIP) telephone service and on improving the delivery of 911 services nationwide. This report reviews key points about the implementation of 911. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10376/
Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces: Facts and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6219/
The National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program: Preparing for the "Big One"
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1165/
Disaster Mitigation Assistance Bills in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Provisions
The Administration initiative to shift federal emergency management policy away from a "response and recovery" emphasis has generated little congressional controversy, although some have raised concerns about the cost effectiveness of implementing a mitigation strategy. Greater attention, it is generally argued, should be given to mitigation (loss reduction) efforts before disasters occur in order to reduce future losses. Legislation (H.R. 707, S. 1691) pending before the 106th Congress would amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) which authorizes federal assistance when the President declares that a catastrophe has overwhelmed state and local resources. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1166/
Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces: Facts and Issues
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8990/
U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview
This report discusses U.S. warning systems and related disaster management programs in place to prepare for and react to tsunamis. This issue is discussed in relation to the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33020/
U.S. Tsunami Programs: A Brief Overview
This report discusses U.S. warning systems and related disaster management programs in place to prepare for and react to tsunamis. This issue is discussed in relation to the March 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc99024/
Public Safety Communications Policy
Since September 11, 2001, the effectiveness of America's communications capabilities in support of the information needs of first responders and other public safety workers has been a matter of concern to Congress. Most public safety advocates consider that the communications failures following the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina demonstrate that there is much still to be done to provide the United States with adequate communications capabilities in emergencies. This report explores several pieces of legislation aimed at improving the emergency management the emergency communications infrastructure. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10407/
Public Safety Communications Policy
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9791/
The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparation Act (S. 3678): Provisions and Comparison with Current Law and Related Proposals
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9502/
Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
The aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created staggering problems and challenging conditions for the people of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, as well as for the state and local governments there. Many problems were immediately apparent, whereas others that involved ongoing government functions, such as elections, were less obvious at first. This report discusses the challenge of running elections in the many affected communities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821393/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security. Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501600/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security. Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501731/
The Military Commissions Act of 2009: Overview and Legal Issues
This report provides an analysis of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and its financial status, summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency, presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc501710/
The U.S. Tsunami Program: A Brief Overview
This report provides an introduction to U.S. Tsunami warning centers and discusses the national Tsunami hazard mitigation program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503289/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relief for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc93819/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status, summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency, presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26167/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relif for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc33010/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
In 1968, Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to address the increasing costs of taxpayer-funded disaster relif for flood victims and the increasing amount of damage caused by floods. This report provides an analysis of the NFIP and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40078/
National Flood Insurance Program: Background, Challenges, and Financial Status
This report provides an analysis of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) and its financial status; summarizes the major challenges facing the program, including issues affecting its long-term financial solvency; presents some alternative approaches for managing and financing the flood losses; and describes pending legislation on this issue. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc97975/
First Responder Grant Formulas: A Comparison of Formula Provisions in S.2845 and H.R. 10, 108th Congress
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7852/
Continuity of Congress: Enacted and Proposed Federal Statutes for Expedited Election to the House in Extraordinary Circumstances
This report is one of several CRS products related to congressional continuity and contingency planning. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9109/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the Disaster Relief Fund (DRF) within the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26190/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the DRF, including (1) what authorities have shaped it over the years; (2) how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and (3) how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Aspects of debate concerning how disaster relief is budgeted are also highlighted and examined, and alternative budgetary options are summarized. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc40079/
First Responder Grant Formulas: The 9/11 Commission Recommendation and Other Options for Congressional Action
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5867/
FEMA and Disaster Relief
No Description digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs638/
Disaster Relief Funding and Emergency Supplemental Appropriations
This report describes the various components of the Disaster Relief Fund, including what authorities have shaped it over the years; how FEMA determines the amount of the appropriation requested to Congress (pertaining to the DRF); and how emergency supplemental appropriations are requested. In addition to the DRF, information is provided on funds appropriated in supplemental appropriations legislation to agencies other than the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc689162/
Federal Emergency Management and Homeland Security Organization: Historical Developments and Legislative Options
This report provides background information about the establishment and evolution of federal emergency management and related homeland security organization since 1950. Post-Katrina assessments of current arrangements by Congress and the White House are also discussed. Finally, the report provides a brief summary of related legislation that had been introduced as of July 17, 2006. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9155/
The Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy: In Brief
This report briefly analyzes the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy (HSRS), which is the key strategic document released by the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force established by executive order. It also discusses overarching issues for Congress that may arise in oversight of the Hurricane Sandy recovery process and how lessons learned from Hurricane Sandy can be applied to future disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc282299/
Efforts to Delay the Gradual Elimination of Flood Insurance Premium Subsidies
This report examines legislative efforts in Congress to delay the gradual phase-out of subsidized flood insurance premiums, which is required under Sections 100205 and 100207 of P.L. 112-141, the Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform and Modernization Act of 2012. This new law extended the authorization for the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) for five years, through September 30, 2017, while requiring significant program reforms affecting flood insurance, flood hazard mapping, and floodplains management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491285/
The National Flood Insurance Program: Status and Remaining Issues for Congress
This report provides an analysis of flood risk management, summarizes major challenges facing the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), and outlines key reforms in the recently enacted Biggert-Waters Flood Insurance Reform Act of 2012. The report also identifies and presents some key remaining flood management issues for congressional considerations, and it concludes with a discussion of relevant policy options for the future financial management of flood hazards in the United States. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491005/
Major Disaster Declarations for Snow Assistance and Severe Winter Storms: An Overview
This report describes snow assistance and assistance for severe winter storms, the declaration process, the criteria used to make eligibility determinations, and the types of assistance that are provided after the President has issued a major disaster declaration for the incident. This report also provides historical data on winter incidents since 2009 including obligations for the incidents from FEMA's Disaster Relief Fund (DRF). The DRF is the main account used to fund a wide variety of programs, grants, and other forms of emergency and disaster assistance to states, local governments, certain nonprofit entities, and families and individuals affected by disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc491572/
The Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy: In Brief
This report briefly analyzes the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Strategy (HSRS), which is the key strategic document released by the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force established by executive order. This report also discusses overarching issues for Congress that may arise during oversight of the Hurricane Sandy recovery process and how lessons learned from Hurricane Sandy can be applied to future disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc490966/
FEMA Disaster Housing and Hurricane Katrina: Overview, Analysis, and Congressional Issues
This report discusses the issues with the housing policies of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), particularly as they relate to the Post-Katrina Act of 2006 (P.L. 109-295) and the Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Plan (P.L. 93-288). It includes an overview of the Stafford Act sections 403 and 408 as well as a breakdown of issues for Congress and possible Congressional approaches to address the policies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462284/
Supplemental Appropriations for Disaster Assistance: Summary Data and Analysis
This report provides summary information on supplemental appropriations legislation enacted since FY2000 after significant large-scale disasters. It includes funds appropriated to various departments and agencies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462675/
Emergency Assistance for Agricultural Land Rehabilitation
This report discusses the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA) several permanently authorized programs to help producers recover from natural disasters. Most of these programs offer financial assistance to producers for a loss in the production of crops or livestock. In addition to the production assistance programs, USDA also has several permanent disaster assistance programs that help producers repair damaged crop and forest land following natural disasters. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463066/
Wildfire Management: Federal Funding and Related Statistics
This report provides wildfire management statistics (e.g., number of wildfires, acres burned, select state wildfire activity, firefighter personnel), presents wildfire management (WFM) appropriations from fiscal years 2008 to the present, and discusses two related issues--wildfire suppression funding estimation and air tanker readiness. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462550/
FY2013 Supplemental Funding for Disaster Relief: Summary and Considerations for Congress
This report analyzes the Administration's request, the House-passed legislation, and the Senate position as reflected in Senate-amended H.R. 1 from the 112th Congress. (The newly constituted Senate has not taken up legislation establishing its position on the supplemental request as of the date of publication.) It includes information on legislative provisions as well as funding levels. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc462362/
Summary Report: Congressional Action on the FY2013 Disaster Supplemental
In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy impacted a wide swath of the East Coast of the United States, resulting in more than 120 deaths and the major disaster declarations for 12 states plus the District of Columbia. The Administration submitted a request to Congress on December 7, 2012, for $60.4 billion in supplemental funding and legislative provisions to address both the immediate losses and damages from Hurricane Sandy, as well as to mitigate the damage from future disasters in the impacted region. This summary report analyzes the Administration's request, the House-passed legislation, and the Senate position as reflected in Senate-amended H.R. 1 from the 112th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc463248/
Implementing the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for Disaster Response, Recovery, and Mitigation Projects
This report discusses the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 as it applies to projects for which federal funding to recover from or prepare for a disaster has been requested by local, tribal, or state grant applicants. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc505496/
Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation
This report analyzes Division C of the Department of Defense Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, P.L. 109-148, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005, and which limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503349/
Emergency Assistance for Agricultural Land Rehabilitation
This report describes emergency agricultural land assistance programs designed to repair agricultural and forest land following a natural disaster and potentially mitigate future risk. It presents background on the programs--purpose, activities, authority, eligibility requirements, and authorized program funding levels, as well as current congressional issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc503496/
Would an Influenza Pandemic Qualify as a Major Disaster Under the Stafford Act?
This report provides a legal analysis of the eligibility of an influenza pandemic to be declared by the President as a major disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc626930/
Would an Influenza Pandemic Qualify as a Major Disaster Under the Stafford Act?
This report provides a legal analysis of the eligibility of an influenza pandemic to be declared by the President as a major disaster under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc627007/
Bankruptcy Relief and Natural Disaster Victims
In the wake of Hurricane Katrina, many have questioned whether implementing the new procedures of the Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act (BAPCPA), P.L. 109-8, scheduled to go into effect on October 17, 2005, should be delayed. This report considers whether bankruptcy law in general, and the BAPCPA in particular, may present unique challenges to financial recovery for those whose life, livelihood, and/or home have been damaged or destroyed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7811/
Army Corps Supplemental Appropriations: Recent History, Trends, and Policy Issues
This report provides analysis of Corps supplemental funding. Its focus is recent decades of supplemental funding provided directly to the Corps, and it does not include extensive analysis of regular Corps appropriations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc227833/
Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
This report summarizes principal federal disaster assistance programs for possible use by Members of Congress and their staff in helping address the needs of constituents. A number of federal agencies provide assistance to individual victims; state, territorial, and local governments; and non-governmental entities, following a disaster. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc87261/