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 Decade: 2000-2009
 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Forest Fire/Wildfire Protection
This report provides historical background on wildfires, and describes concerns about the wildland-urban interface and about forest and rangeland health. It discusses fuel management, fire control, and fire effects and also examines federal, state, and landowner roles and responsibilities in protecting lands and resources from wildfires. The report concludes by discussing current issues for federal wildfire management. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc855916/
Pandemic Flu and Medical Biodefense Countermeasure Liability Limitation
This report analyzes Division C of the Department of Defense Emergency Supplemental Appropriations, P.L. 109-148, which was signed into law on December 30, 2005, and which limits liability with respect to pandemic flu and other public health countermeasures. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847748/
State and Local Homeland Security: Unresolved Issues for the 109th Congress
This report discusses important state and local homeland security policy issues that the 109th Congress might address. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847649/
FEMA Flood Map Modernization Funding
This report discusses the implementation of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)'s Flood Map Modernization (Map Mod) Initiative (FMMI) and its ongoing Map Mod program. FEMA introduced the FMMI in September 1997 as a strategic plan to convert paper flood insurance rate maps (FIRMs) to digital electronic format, or DFIRMs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847684/
National Flood Insurance Program: Treasury Borrowing in the Aftermath of Hurricane Katrina
This report discusses the the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), which has been financially overwhelmed by claims and expenses related to the massive flooding caused by Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847589/
U.S. and International Responses to the Global Spread of Avian Flu: Issues for Congress
This report will provide an account of global H5N1-related human infections and deaths, outline U.S. government and international responses to the global spread of H5N1, discuss situations in various countries affected by H5N1, and present some foreign policy issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc847619/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
This report discusses options for airline passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and policy issues related to the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458). The legislation directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc824782/
Postal Service for Katrina Survivors
This report discusses the affected areas served by the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821685/
Emergency Communications Legislation, 2002-2006: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report summarizes progress in developing legislation, especially in the 109th Congress, in three areas of emergency communications: communications among first responders and other emergency personnel; emergency warnings and alerts; and 911 call centers and systems. Each area could be the subject of further consideration in the 110th Congress, through oversight, additional legislation, or funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc808127/
Emergency Communications Legislation, 2002-2006: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report summarizes progress in developing legislation, especially in the 109th Congress, in three areas of emergency communications: communications among first responders and other emergency personnel; emergency warnings and alerts; and 911 call centers and systems. Each area could be the subject of further consideration in the 110th Congress, through oversight, additional legislation, or funding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820861/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report discusses legislation addressing communications among first responders. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc809320/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
Since September 11, 2001, several bills introduced in the U.S. Congress have included provisions to assist emergency communications. Key provisions from a number of these bills have become law. This report summarizes progress in developing legislation, especially in the 109th Congress, in three areas of emergency communications: communications among first responders and other emergency personnel; emergency warnings and alerts; and 911 call centers and systems. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc806534/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822372/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821555/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc820330/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc809949/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807676/
Tsunamis: Monitoring, Detection, and Early Warning Systems
This report discusses proposals for international tsunami early warning systems and examines U.S. policy regarding tsunamis. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc807519/
Hurricane Katrina: Medicaid Issues
This report discusses the following: Medicaid’s rules on eligibility, benefits, and financing in the context of current questions and issues raised by Hurricane Katrina. Recent state actions in response to Medicaid issues raised by the hurricane. Federal Medicaid waiver authority, including information on current activity in this area and the New York Disaster Relief Medicaid waiver granted in response to the September 11 terrorist attacks. Current federal legislation related to Medicaid and Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822601/
Assistance After Hurricanes and Other Disasters: FY2004 and FY2005 Supplemental Appropriations
This report presents summary information on the requests and congressional action for supplemental disaster relief funding for FY2004. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822622/
FY2006 Supplemental Appropriations: Iraq and Other International Activities; Additional Hurricane Katrina Relief
This report discusses the two separate FY2006 supplemental appropriations requests submitted on February 16, 2006. The first, totaling $72.4 billion, would fund ongoing military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ($67.9 billion), non-DOD intelligence operations ($0.3 billion), State Department operations in Iraq and various foreign aid programs, including additional assistance for Iraq ($4.2 billion), and other counter-terrorism funding for other agencies ($12 million). The other supplemental would provide $19.8 billion for recovery and reconstruction activities in hurricane affected Gulf Coast areas. Thus, Congress is to consider during the early months of 2006 a combined spending proposal of $92.2 billion. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821424/
Elections in States Affected by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita
The aftermath of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita created staggering problems and challenging conditions for the people of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas, as well as for the state and local governments there. Many problems were immediately apparent, whereas others that involved ongoing government functions, such as elections, were less obvious at first. This report discusses the challenge of running elections in the many affected communities. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821393/
Federal Employees: Human Resources Management Flexibilities in Emergency Situations
This report discusses guidance from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) on the various human resources (HR) flexibilities available to federal departments and agencies to facilitate management in emergency situations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821104/
Detection of Explosives on Airline Passengers: Recommendation of the 9/11 Commission and Related Issues
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (P.L. 108-458) directs the Department of Homeland Security to place high priority on developing and deploying equipment for passenger explosives screening; requires TSA to submit a strategic plan for deploying such equipment; and authorizes additional research funding. It also requires that passengers who are selected for additional screening be screened for explosives, as an interim measure until all passengers can be screened for explosives. Congressional interest in this topic continues in the 109th Congress. This report discusses the current state of passenger explosives trace detection, ongoing federal R&D efforts and pilot equipment deployments, and related policy issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc821060/
Side-by-Side Comparison of Flood Insurance Reform Legislation in the 110th Congress
This report discusses the key policy objectives of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that were threefold: (1) reduce the nation's flood risk through floodplain management; (2) improve flood hazard data and risk assessment by mapping the nation's floodplains; and (3) make affordable flood insurance widely available in communities that adopt and enforce measures to make future construction safer from flooding. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822489/
Disaster Debris Removal After Hurricane Katrina: Status and Associated Issues
This report discusses issues associated with debris removal operations after a disaster on the scale of Katrina. In particular, it discusses why debris removal was an ongoing concern months after the hurricane, as well as factors that make debris removal such a costly, complex operation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822476/
FY2004 Appropriations for First Responder Preparedness: Fact Sheet
This report provides an overview of FY2004 appropriations for state and local terrorism preparedness. Preparedness may be defined as enhancing a state or local government’s capability to respond effectively to a terrorist attack, particularly one involving a weapon of mass destruction (WMD). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822424/
Fiscal Year 2005 Homeland Security Grant Program: State Allocations and Issues for Congressional Oversight
This report summarizes key provisions of the FY2005 program guidance, with special attention to differences from the FY2003 and FY2004 editions. This report also discusses issues regarding methods used to allocate federal homeland security assistance and authorized expenditures of homeland security assistance programs, and it analyzes options Congress may wish to consider for resolving those issues. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc822705/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
This report discusses legislation addressing communications among first responders and the issues such as interoperability -- the capability of different systems to connect. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795626/
Tsunami Detection and Warnings for the United States
This report discusses topics in respect to tsunami disaster warnings for the United States, discussions ensued between the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) about developing a multi-hazard warning and response system. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795649/
Haiti: Post-Hurricane Conditions and Assistance
This report discusses U.S. and international disaster assistance to Haiti following storms in August and September 2008 which caused widespread devastation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795512/
The 2009 Influenza A(H1N1) "Swine Flu" Outbreak: U.S. Responses to Global Human Cases
This report discusses the April 2009 outbreak of the influenza strain known as H1N1, or swine influenza. This report describes the distribution of the virus and the statistics of affected areas, as well as international and U.S. efforts to treat infected persons, respond to outbreaks in various countries, and prepare for a possible influenza pandemic. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795645/
Indian Ocean Earthquake and Tsunami: Humanitarian Assistance and Relief Operations
This report summarizes the extent of the disaster and relief effort and includes descriptions of the U.S. and international assistance efforts. It also examines protection mechanisms for children and separated orphans. A section is devoted to the situation in each of the affected countries followed by an analysis of selected issues for Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc795433/
Emergency Communications Legislation: Implications for the 110th Congress
This report discusses the legislation addressing communications among first responders focused first on interoperability -- the capability of different systems to connect -- with provisions in the Homeland Security Act (P.L. 107-296). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770518/
FEMA's Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program: Overview and Issues
This report discusses Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM), and "Project Impact," a FEMA pilot program. It provides an overview of PDM, legislative history, funding and mitigation studies related to Hurricane Katrina, issues for Congress, and overall observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770547/
The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC): An Overview
This report discusses the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC), which is an agreement among member states to provide assistance after disasters overwhelm a state's capacity to manage consequences. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770551/
Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding
This report discusses the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) that authorizes the President to issue major disaster, emergency, and fire management declarations, which in turn enable federal agencies to provide assistance to state and local governments overwhelmed by catastrophes. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770593/
An Emergency Communications Safety Net: Integrating 911 and Other Services
This report deals primarily with 911 and its recent history. It discusses the existing situation of 911's capacity to respond in emergencies, some proposals to improve the system, and recent legislative activity. Proposals include better connections between 911 call centers and emergency responders, building a more robust capacity, incorporating Internet protocols, developing the capacity for back-up call centers after disasters have occurred, and coordinating 911 with other types of call centers, such as the 211 centers that provide municipal services. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc770604/
Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress
This report summarizes several emergency management and homeland security programs, and identifies and analyzes potential issues for the 111th Congress. These issues include the purpose and number of assistance programs; the evaluation of the use of grant funding; the determination of eligible grant recipients; the programs' funding amounts; and the programs' funding distribution methodologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743485/
Public Health and Medical Preparedness and Response: Issues in the 111th Congress
This report summarizes key issues in domestic public health and medical preparedness and response, citing other CRS Reports and sources of additional information. Key recent events--the 2001 terrorist attacks, Hurricane Katrina, and concerns about an influenza ("flu") pandemic, among others--sharpened congressional interest in the nation's systems to track and respond to public health threats. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743554/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants of the FIRE Act grant program. The program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. This report also discusses the possible reauthorization of AFG and the related Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743490/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants of the FIRE Act grant program. The program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. This report also discusses the possible reauthorization of AFG and the related Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743429/
Federal Flood Policy Challenges: Lessons from the 2008 Midwest Flood
This report provides a primer on recent developments, the federal role in flood policy, and the limitations of levees and dams. It also discusses lessons from the 2008 Midwest flood compared to the 1993 flood, and the evolution of U.S. flood policy. It pays particular attention to the role of Congress and federal agencies and programs, and the available tools for addressing the nation's flood challenge. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743476/
USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives After 15 Years: Issues for Congress
This report discusses USAID's Office of Transition Initiatives' (OTI's) origin, its past and present activities, and issues about the program's impact, structure, and role within USAID that may be of interest to Congress. OTI's activities are overtly political, based on the idea that in the midst of political crisis and instability abroad there are local agents of change whose efforts, when supported by timely and creative U.S. assistance, can tip the balance toward peaceful and democratic outcomes that advance U.S. foreign policy objectives. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743579/
Federal Disaster Recovery Programs: Brief Summaries
This report identifies programs administered by federal agencies to provide a range of assistance to individual victims; state, territorial, and local governments; and non-governmental entities after major disasters, including certain terrorist attacks. It provides brief descriptive information to help congressional offices determine which programs bear further consideration in the planning, organization, or implementation of recovery operations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743571/
Assistance to Firefighters Program: Distribution of Fire Grant Funding
This report discusses the Assistance to Firefighters Grant (AFG) Program, also known as fire grants of the FIRE Act grant program. The program provides federal grants directly to local fire departments and unaffiliated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) organizations to help address a variety of equipment, training, and other firefighter-related and EMS needs. This report also discusses the possible reauthorization of AFG and the related Staffing for Adequate Fire and Emergency Response Firefighters (SAFER) program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743520/
FEMA's Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program: Overview and Issues
This report discusses Pre-Disaster Mitigation (PDM), and "Project Impact," a FEMA pilot program. It provides an overview of PDM, legislative history, funding and mitigation studies related to Hurricane Katrina, issues for Congress, and overall observations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc743537/
Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress
This report summarizes several emergency management and homeland security programs, and identifies and analyzes potential issues for the 111th Congress. These issues include the purpose and number of assistance programs; the evaluation of the use of grant funding; the determination of eligible grant recipients; the programs' funding amounts; and the programs; funding distribution methodologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700583/
Department of Homeland Security Assistance to States and Localities: A Summary and Issues for the 111th Congress
This report summarizes several emergency management and homeland security programs, and identifies and analyzes potential issues for the 111th Congress. These issues include the purpose and number of assistance programs; the evaluation of the use of grant funding; the determination of eligible grant recipients; the programs' funding amounts; and the programs; funding distribution methodologies. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700792/
Financing Recovery from Large-Scale Natural Disasters
This report provides an analysis of the challenges facing property and casualty insurance and reinsurance companies in financing large-scale natural disasters, particularly during financial market turmoil. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc700739/
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