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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Early Childhood Education: Federal Policy Issues
This report examines what we currently know about preprimary programs including numbers of children served and their family characteristics; as well as data on the efficacy of preprimary programs in enhancing later learning and other life skills. Current federal programs that serve preschool age children are described, and policy issues which may arise as the federal role in early childhood education is debated, are discussed. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs5864/
Merit Pay for Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Background Discussion and Analysis of Issues
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Federal Support of School Choice: Background and Options
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Busing for School Desegregation
The mandatory transportation of school children to desegregate public elementary and secondary schools is an issue of deep contention throughout our society. The House of Representatives has approved language for the Department of Justice FY82 authorization bill (H.R. 3462) restricting the Department's involvement in actions requiring school busing. On Mar. 2, 1962, t h e Senate approved the version of the Department of Justice F Y 8 2 authorization Bill (S. 951) with language restricting the Justice Department's involvement in busing actions as well as imposing limits on the busing plans Federal courts can impose. S. 551 was then sent to the House for consideration. Hearings on S. 951 before a house Judiciary subcommittee began on June 1'7, 1982. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8601/
Busing for School Desegregation: The Debate on Selected Issues
This paper explores selected questions involving the busing of elementary and secondary school students for desegregation. On each of the selected questions a general analysis of the issue involved is presented, followed by two subsections entitled A Critic's Position and An Advocate's Position. In these subsections, an attempt is made to show how a critic of busing for desegregation and an advocate of such busing might fashion arguments on this issue in opposition to, or in support of, busing. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8161/
Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
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Head Start Issues in the 108th Congress
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Standardized Educational Test Scores
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Education of the Handicapped
Federal involvement in the education of the handicapped increased significantly with the enactment of the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 (P.L. 94-142) in the 94th Congress. This legislation amended the provisions for State assistance under Part B of the Education of the Handicapped Act (EHA, P.L. 91-230, title VI, as amended) to require that a "free appropriate public education" be available for all handicapped children age 3 through 21 by September 1980. P.L. 94-142 authorized increased Federal financial assistance along with new requirements for participating State agencies and local school districts. Current issues relating to Federal policy for the education of the handicapped include concerns about costs and responsibilities in educating the handicapped, about the level of Federal financial support, about the characteristics of handicapped children actually identified and served, about the implementation of P.L. 94-142 requirements by State and local school districts, and about Administration proposals to revise Part B regulations. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8810/
Redefining the Federal Role in Elementary and Secondary Education: The Goals 2000 Proposal and Reauthorization of the ESEA
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
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Performance-Based Pay for Teachers
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Financial Aid for Students: Print and Web Guides
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Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress
The quality and quantity of public elementary and secondary school teachers are of increasing concern to the 106th Congress. Although states and localities are responsible for most aspects of teacher preparation, recruitment, and employment, the federal government supports a wide array of programs for teachers. Several of these programs are being considered for amendment and extension by the 106th Congress including the Eisenhower Professional Development program and the Class Size Reduction program. The 106th Congress has before it a wide array of legislative proposals to address teacher issues. Action has occurred on several proposals. This report tracks such action and will be updated as it occurs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1163/
Education Issues in the 105th Congress, 2nd Session
Several education issues are being considered by the 105th Congress. Some of the congressional action results from expiring legislation, such as the Higher Education Act of 1965 (HEA). Other action may occur because of debate over the appropriate federal role in education, including federal support for school reform or national testing. This report provides a brief summary of education issues anticipated for the 2nd Session, as well as a synopsis of education activity during the 1st Session. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs633/
School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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School Choice: Current Legislation
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Supplemental Educational Services for Children from Low-Income Families Under ESEA Title I-A
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Bilingual Education: An Overview
The U.S. Department of Education(ED) administers the Bilingual Education Act (BEA), the federal education program specifically intended for limited English proficient (LEP) children. The Congress considered several proposals to reauthorize the BEA in the 106th Congress. The 107th Congress has again been considering legislation to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), including the BEA. H.R. 1, the “No Child Left Behind Act of 2001” was passed by the House on May 23, 2001. S. 1, the “Better Education for Students and Teachers Act” was reported in the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, and is currently under consideration, as amended by SA358, in the Senate. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1882/
ESEA Reauthorization Proposals: Comparison of Major Features of the House and Senate Versions of H.R. 1
The authorizations of appropriations for most programs of federal aid to elementary and secondary (grades K-12) education, under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), expired at the end of FY2000. While the 106th Congress extensively considered several bills which would have reauthorized and amended most of these programs, only legislation extending the Impact Aid (ESEA Title VIII) and Even Start Family Literacy (ESEA Title I, Part B) programs was enacted. Selected other programs, such as the Class Size Reduction program, have been initiated and continued solely through annual appropriations legislation. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1431/
Elementary and Secondary Education: Reconsideration of the Federal Role by the 107th Congress
This issue brief provides an overview of legislation to reauthorize the ESEA, ERDDIA, and NESA. Most of it will focus on the ESEA, since it is much larger in scale. We include a summary review of relevant legislation acted upon during the 106th Congress. This issue brief will be updated regularly to reflect current legislative activity. Other issue briefs and reports, listed at the end of this brief, provide more detailed information on individual programs or types of proposals and analyses of the issues being debated with respect to them. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1422/
Reducing Teen Pregnancy: Adolescent Family Life and Abstinence Education Programs
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Head Start: Background and Funding
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Education in America: Reports on Its Condition, Recommendations for Change
The quality of education in our schools, particularly our high schools, and appropriate Federal actions to improve educational quality have become a major political issue. A number of reports on education with recommendations for change have been issued, among them A Nation At Risk by the National Commission on Excellence in Education. These reports are critical of how our Schools are functioning and call for improvement in areas such as teaching, curriculum, and standards for student performance and behavior. Some issues raised by these reports are whether these changes are needed, how these changes might be implemented, and what might be the roles of different- levels of government in this process. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9059/
Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1820/
Education Savings Accounts for Elementary and Secondary Education
The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-16) that President Bush signed on June 7, 2001, includes these changes, effective after 2001. The most prominent issue they raise is whether the federal government should assist families whose children are educated in private schools. Policy questions include what effect such assistance might have on public schools and student performance and whether it would be constitutional. Concerns have also been expressed that the legislation would create compliance problems and is most likely to benefit better-off families. P.L. 107-22 renamed the accounts Coverdell education savings accounts. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1819/
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
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Legal Analysis of President Reagan's Proposed Constitutional Amendment on School Prayer
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Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
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Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
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Tuition Tax Credits
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Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10477/
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce
In the 21st century, global competition and rapid advances in science and technology will challenge the scientific and technical proficiency of the U.S. workforce. This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26280/
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10379/
Issues Raised by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus On Education and Training
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by S. 1248, 108th Congress
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K-12 Education: Highlights of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-110)
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The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8144/
Educational Testing: Implementation of ESEA Title I-A Requirements Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides background information on state pupil assessment programs and policies, a description of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A assessment requirements as expanded by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), a review of the implementation status of these requirements, and an analysis of related issues which may be addressed by the 108th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7369/
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