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 Collection: Congressional Research Service Reports
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
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Tuition Tax Credits
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Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
Issues and legislation related to foreign students continue to arise. The funding and English-language competency of foreign students have raised concerns with some universities, advocacy groups, and other observers. Additionally, some recent legislation has focused on attracting foreign students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Legislation passed in the Senate (S. 2611) would create pathways to citizenship for foreign students in the STEM fields of study. Although there are provisions in this legislation for undergraduate students, the major focus has been on students obtaining advanced degrees. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10477/
The U.S. Science and Technology Workforce
In the 21st century, global competition and rapid advances in science and technology will challenge the scientific and technical proficiency of the U.S. workforce. This report provides an overview of the status of the U.S. science and technology (S&T) workforce, and identifies some of the issues and options that are currently being discussed in Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc26280/
Palestinian Education and the Debate Over Textbooks
Palestinian education reform is often seen as a key element in internal Palestinian reform and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, as well as in broader U.S. interests in the region. Concerns over Palestinian Authority (PA) textbooks often cite examples of anti-Jewish education materials and a lack of reference to or positive acknowledgment of the state of Israel. Overall, some analysts allege that PA textbooks spread a culture of violence that prizes martyrdom. Palestinian curriculum reform is an important element in the broader U.S. policy of promoting Middle East democracy and governance reforms. Palestinian curriculum development is relevant to congressional concerns about the Palestinian-Israeli peace process, levels of U.S. assistance to the Palestinians, U.N. reforms in the Palestinian Territories, and the broader U.S. promotion of democracy in the Middle East. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs10379/
Issues Raised by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus On Education and Training
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Selected Changes that Would be Made to the Law by S. 1248, 108th Congress
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K-12 Education: Highlights of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (P.L. 107-110)
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The Constitutionality of the Withdrawal of All Federal Court Jurisdiction Over Questions Involving State-Sponsored Prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings
This report discusses several court decisions regarding the constitutionality of the withdrawal of all Federal Court Jurisdiction over questions involving state-sponsored prayer in Public Schools and Public Buildings. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs8144/
Educational Testing: Implementation of ESEA Title I-A Requirements Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides background information on state pupil assessment programs and policies, a description of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title I-A assessment requirements as expanded by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLBA), a review of the implementation status of these requirements, and an analysis of related issues which may be addressed by the 108th Congress. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs7369/
Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act
Title I, Part A, of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) authorizes federal aid to local educational agencies (LEAs) for the education of disadvantaged children. Title I-A grants provide supplementary educational and related services to low-achieving and other pupils attending schools with relatively high concentrations of pupils from low-income families in pre-kindergarten through grade 12. Title I-A is the largest federal elementary and secondary education assistance program, with services provided to (a) over 90% of all LEAs; (b) approximately 45,000 (58% of all) public schools; and (c) approximately 11 million (22% of all) pupils, including approximately 167,000 pupils attending private schools. Four-fifths of all pupils served are in pre-kindergarten through grade 6, while only 5% of pupils served are in grades 10-12. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6120/
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Comparison and Analysis of Selected Provisions in H.R. 1350 as Passed by the House and by the Senate, 108th Congress
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K-12 Education Programs: Appropriations Summary
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Palestinian Education and Debate Over Textbooks
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Proposed Regulations for P.L. 108-446
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Education for the Disadvantaged: Overview of ESEA Title 1-A Amendments Under the No Child Left Behind Act
This report provides an overview of aspects of ESEA Title I-A which were substantially amended by the NCLBA; elements of the program which are important but which were not substantially revised by the NCLBA (such as parental involvement requirements) are not discussed in this report. Other current and forthcoming reports will provide more detailed discussions and analyses of selected major aspects of the program, including pupil assessments,2 accountability, and allocation formulas. This report will be updated regularly, to reflect significant actions regarding funding and implementation of the NCLBA provisions. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6559/
K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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The E-Rate Program: Universal Service Fund Telecommunications Discounts for Schools
This report provides background information on the E-rate program, focusing specifically on its support of schools. It will be revised to reflect any substantive changes in the program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs6068/
Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
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Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
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Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation
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K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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The Federal Emergency Immigrant Education Program
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Monitoring Foreign Students in the United States: The Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS)
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Teacher Recruitment and Retention: Current Programs and Legislation in the 108th Congress
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K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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K-12 Teacher Quality: Issues and Legislative Action
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Class Size Reduction Program: Background and Status
This report provides an overview of the structure and status of the CSR program, the issues raised about the program, early reports on its implementation, and relevant legislative action by the U.S. Congress digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2616/
Class Size Reduction Program: Background and Status
This report provides an overview of the structure and status of the CSR program, the issues raised about the program, early reports on its implementation, and relevant legislative action by the 106th Congress. It also considers emerging results from the California class size reduction effort, the state effort most closely watched by proponents and opponents of the federal CSR program. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1164/
Education Vouchers: The Constitutional Standards
The Court’s decisions permit a limited degree of public aid to be provided directly and a broader range of assistance indirectly. This report sketches the constitutional standards that apply to public aid to sectarian schools and especially to programs of indirect assistance such as education vouchers. It also summarizes recent significant state court decisions involving vouchers. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs632/
Federal Taxation of Student Aid: An Overview
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Information Technology and Elementary and Secondary Education: Current Status and Federal Support
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Information Technology and Elementary and Secondary Education: Current Status and Federal Support
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Overview of State Charter School Laws
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Charter Schools: State Developments and Federal Policy Options
Charter schools are public elementary or secondary schools which are released from a variety of state, local, and possibly federal regulations in return for new forms of accountability in terms of outcomes for pupils. Approximately one-half of the states authorize the establishment of charter schools, and a federal Public Charter Schools (PCS) program provides start-up funds for such schools. The House has passed (H.R. 2616), and the Senate is considering (S. 1380) legislation to modify and expand the PCS program. This report provides background information on charter schools and their characteristics, plus discussion and analysis of current legislation regarding the PCS program. Issues have also arisen regarding the participation of charter schools in other federal aid programs. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs634/
Legislative Prayer and School Prayer: The Constitutional Difference
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Discipline Legislation in the 106th Congress
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Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education: A Primer
The term "STEM education" refers to teaching and learning in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, including educational activities across all grade levels—from pre-school to post-doctorate—in both formal and informal settings. This report is intended to serve as a primer for outlining existing STEM education policy issues and programs. It includes assessments of the federal STEM education effort and the condition of STEM education in the United States, as well as an analysis of several of the policy issues central to the contemporary federal conversation about STEM education. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc122233/
The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA): A Legal Overview
This report discusses the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) of 1974 that guarantees parental access to student education records, while limiting the disclosure of those records to third parties. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc272128/
Article Packet: Background Information on Seatbelts in School Buses
This notice from the Department of Transportation, denies a petition for rule-making filed by Physicians for Automotive Safety (PAS), asking this agency to mandate the installation of seat belts on all school buses. NHTSA believes that the currently mandated occupant protections in school buses provide an adequate level of safety protection, and that seat belts would not raise the level of protection for the occupants unless States and local jurisdictions were willing to take steps to ensure that the seat belts were actually used. digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs9052/
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA): Possible Voucher Issues
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School Facilities Infrastructure: Background and Legislative Proposals
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Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues
This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs2161/
Education for the Disadvantaged: ESEA Title I Reauthorization Issues
This issue brief covers only Parts A and E of ESEA Title I. Part A of Title I, grants to LEAs, constitutes over 90% of total Title I funding, while Part E authorizes program evaluation and demonstration projects of innovative practices, including the Comprehensive School Reform Program. Other Parts of Title I authorize the Even Start program of joint services to young disadvantaged children and their parents (Part B), plus aid for the education of migrant (Part C) and neglected or delinquent youth (Part D). digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metacrs1420/
The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program: Background and Context
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The Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Program: Background and Context
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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act: Full Funding of State Formula
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